Abhishrut Sundarbans. CAUSE AND EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM- Sundarban

Abhishrut Kothari

17BCE10085

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IMPACT
OF GLOBAL WARMING ON SUNDARBAN NATIONAL PARK

METHODOLOGY-

DESCRIPTION
OF THE PROBLEM-

Sundarbans name has been derived
from the “sundri” trees found in that region.

Sundarbans is the world’s largest
mangrove forest and is classified as a world heritage site.It is shared by both
India and Bangladesh in the ratio 3:7 and is home to several species of living
beings. The
Sundarbans has a population of over 4 million but most of it is free of
permanent human settlements. It is
believed that the Sundarbans have absorbed in 4.15 crore tonnes of carbon
dioxide. Due to global warming the Sundarbans faces several difficulties. Due
to the rising sea levels, islands are disappearing and the increase of salts in
the water and soil has immensely deteriorated the health of mangrove forests
and the quality of soil and crops. Furthermore, there have been serious
disturbances to water habitats and change in fishing patterns, resulting in trouble
for fishermen. Regular cyclones and monsoon raining pattern are damaging
ecology and human habitats. In amendment to common environment protection laws,
India has also set up facilities at both the Central and State levels to specifically
handle the effects of global warming in Sundarbans.

CAUSE
AND EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM-

 Sundarban area has many cyclones and
monsoon, as a result of which changes in climate due to global warming have
highly affected the region and the population living within it.

1.     
Increase in temperature due to global warming:

The increase in temperature affects the growth of
mangrove trees. The increase in temperature of the water in the Sundarbans also
affects the aquatic life.

2.      Water Pollution:

Due to heavy sediments deposited by seawater and
disposal of solid waste from nearby cities, the rivers in the Sundarbans do not
get fresh water from the upstream Ganges .

3.      Increase in Salinity:

The decrease in fresh water has
affected mangrove growth.

Additionally, agriculture is
being affected because of the high levels of salinity of the soils due to high
tides, cyclones and problems of water stagnation even after monsoon seasons.

4.      Deforestation:

It has been seen that most of
forest cover was lost between 1989 and 2009. This deforestation has increased
the problems in the natural habitat. In addition to this, clearing of forests
does not makes it easier for agriculture to self sustain on the food plane as
it tends to be immersed under salt water during high tides.

Cyclones

It has been seen that there has
been an increase in the intensity of cyclones occurring in the Sundarbans.
Recent discoveries suggests that such increase in

intensity may be related to an
increase in sea surface temperature.

ANALYSIS
OF THE PROBLEM-

Sundarbans
is one of the most densely populated parts of India with a population density
of about 929 persons/square kilometers in 2001, which has increased to 1,082
persons per square kilometers in 2011. It is frequently seen that any step to
remove the intrusion from the forested areas is likely to be strongly opposed
by local politicians as well as people.  

Fish
stock is reducing because of a combination of overuse and global warming. It
has been seen that fish population in shallow waters has deteriorated.

Despite
the fact that the Sundarbans is a cyclone prone area

and
is heavily inhabited, there is a lack of an effective disaster management
programs.

CONTROL OF THE
PROBLEM-

India has introduced many policies to see through
the problems. These policies are introduced at both the state aand the central
level. We can also prevent the problems by-

1.Creating public awareness through
mass media

 

2..Establishing mechanisms to utilize
benefits from

Global Carbon Market

 

3.Starting community based coastal
forestation-planting more and more trees to help against cyclones

 

4.Helping in natural regeneration
and natural

succession of native tree species

 

5.Protecting existing mangroves
against encroachment

and cutting