According to the definition of the UNESCO manual of managing cultural heritage, the resources basically relies on three main forms: human, financial and intellectual which altogether make foundation for the operational capacity and reflect the status of the heritage site. The experts who joint in the successful conservation practice of Hoi An Protocols convict that historic heritage sites form a rapidly dwindling resources by the change of the economic development (Engelhardt and Rogers, 2005). That is considered as the reason why the resources can the main point to successful management of the heritage.
First is about the human resources. Human resources in the cultural site like Hoi An is mainly residents and local people from the heritage property. Hoi An local people are contributing the most in the development of tourism in the town and also helping preserving the heritage site. With the rapid development of tourism in Hoi An town, the number of guesthouses, restaurants, hotels and all other kind of souvernir stores, handicrafts are mushrooming every year and require a great amount of employees and high-qualified worker of traditional products. Without local means without traditional lifestyle, traditional major craft products such as lanterns and embroidery, Hoi An will become an old town without the soul itself. Thus, human resources, local people from the site play an important roles in cultural heritage tourism development and preservation.
The complexity of Hoi An Ancient Town with sophisticated and specific architectural stuctures, which are accumulated heavily through many cultural events, customs, cultural life of local people and tourist activities, is in need of repairation each year to maintain the safety of the cultural heritage. This requires a hugh amount of financial resources. This resources includes fixed amount from government budget and variable amount from other internation sources, loans, private funding or a mix of them. In the case of Hoi An, it is recorded that “In the first decade after the World Heritage inscription, approximately 200 government-owned heritage buildings were restored at a total cost of more than $5 million. The municipal government provided 45% of the total funding, while the national and provincial governments contributing 50%. Donor support accounted for 5%” (Galla, 2012). Other than that, donations from JICA (Japan), Sumitomo Foundation (Japan), Tasei Corporation (Japan), Canada Fund and specific support for World Heritage properties from UNESCO were funded for Hoi An’s renovation (Tran Anh, 2001). Moreover, nearly 74% of total revenue from entrance ticket to Hoi An and other activities of tourists contribute to the restoration of the heritage site. This can prove that tourism industry is now becoming a crucial factor in either short-term or long-term heritage management in Hoi An Ancient Town.
At last, in intellectual resources, it can be overlapped with human resources about the need of knowledgeable experts to help manage and preserve the heritage site in the right way. Take an example of “The powwow to preserve the ancient city of Hoi An and the Japanese Pagoda Bridge” which was organized by professor Hiromichi Tomoda and other famous scientists and scholars in big universities in Japan such as Tsukuba and Tokyo university, they gathered together in Hoi An to support Vietnam to restore the heritage (Nguyen Minh, 2017). Furthermore, intellectual resources can be created by training local people to aware of protecting the heritage site. People with a better awareness, they will care more and try to protect more and importantly, cause less damage to the site.