THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
is one of the many provinces in the Philippines that exhibit a wide range of
traditions and culture, like the prominent “Pistang Pansit Cabagan” where they
celebrate their famous delicacy the “pansit cabagan” every first month of the
year. . It is located in Cagayan Valley
and is included in the top ten (10) richest provinces in the country. Just like
most of the provinces located within the Philippine archipelago, Isabela also
generates special delicacies that win the hearts of common Filipinos. One of
them is the meatball or “bola-bola.”
are round-shaped grilled pork but unlike in Metro Manila, Isabela has a
different version of meatballs. The typical meatballs have pure ground pork,
mixed with spices. While Isabela’s bola-bola have pechay, carrots and other
seasoning coated with whisked egg and rolled into the flour and bread crumbs.
meatballs with brassica rapa (pechay) requires only a minimal amount of initial
capital and is no less easy to prepare, the proponents of this study sees it as
the best variant to introduce to the students of Rizal Technological University
(RTU) to all levels. Other than having no difficulty in preparing the said
product, the researchers also foresees positive profit from it. The approval of
this of this product will also ensure a better spotlight in the province of
Isabela and an expected patronage from the students.
concept of this study is to bring the provincial taste of bola-bola to the
townsfolk. The bizarreness of the product would attract aspiring customers. The
purchase of the product would give them the benefit of discovering an infamous
delicacy of Isabela and would gain nutritional attributes that the brassica
The advantage of this product is
that it can be eaten both as a snack or a dish served during meals. Also be a
component that can be added to specific cuisines. A disadvantage is that the
term “bola-bola” is already common. The target market might ignore the said
product because of misconception.
researchers ought to sell the product in an affordable price of ten pesos each
from its total cost of four hundred and seventy pesos (P 470). In this way even
the thrifty students of Rizal Technological University will be able to purchase
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
input is for the researchers to gather required data with purposes to
critically examine the impact of Isabela’s Bola-bola to city’s palate.
The process is to ask 50 respondents
to answer the corresponding questionnaire that varies from age and strand or
The output is to analyze and
interpret the gathered data towards the aim of the researchers to prove that
the proposed hypothesis is true.
Statement of the Problem
are the feedbacks of the respondents?
the product be profitable?
the uniqueness of the product attract more consumers?
4. What is the difference in the response between senior
high school and college students?
possible improvements do the products need?
This research goal is to market a product new to the
taste of townsfolk and prove that uniqueness is an advantage in luring
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
research will focus on Filipino customers, a persons living with full of
desires and demands particularly in achieving certain foods, with no particular
gender preference and social status. It may be limited by the analyzation of
the researchers, time constraints, respondents’ feedback, and lack of prior studies
about the topic.
Significance of the Study
study will be a significant endeavor in promoting provincial cuisine towards
city’s environment with additional nutrition that may benefit the following
group of individuals.
To the ABM students this
could provide additional knowledge in tactical business establishment and
product innovation that might help aspiring entrepreneurs in fulfilling their
To the Teachers this
could give the teachers more information that they could share to their students.
To the Businessmen this
could serve as a concrete basis on bringing provincial taste to the Urban. This
will give a wider scope in the business world in a promising production service
according to the countrymen’s taste.
To future researchers this
could inspire and influence the succeeding researchers to expand and to improve
the product and the research, where they could contribute profound information
where the study lacks at. Also, it could serve as a reference basis to research
similar to this.
Definition of Terms
Adolescence a person
going through adulthood, the target market of this research project.
Archipelago a group of
islands specifically The Philippines.
Bola-bola the product used in the study that originated in Isabela.
Brassica Rapa is
the scientific term for pechay.
raw meat, vegetables, and spices used to create a certain dish.
Local Palate the
different taste preference of a person within a specific region.
Obesity an unhealthy state of being overweight due to lack of movements
and excess eating.
Provincial Cuisine a style of cooking
in a particular region.
Rizal Technological University (RTU) the
location of where the said study is conducted.
REVIEW OF RELATED
Bola-bola (A Regional Cuisine in the
The Philippines is not only a country known for its
breathtaking sites, hospitality and it’s fascinating culture. Filipinos are
also notable to cooking and eating a variety of food that is somewhat unique
from other countries. According to Wikipedia, The style of cooking and the food
associated with it have evolved over many centuries from their Austronesian
origins (shared with Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines) to a mixed cuisine of
Indian, Chinese, Spanish, and American influences, in line with the major waves
of influence that had enriched the cultures of the archipelago, as well as
others adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate. In short,
because of all the culture that was adopted by the Philippines and has evolved
over time, the Philippine cuisine was produced.
With the Philippines having seven thousand six hundred
forty-one (7,641) islands, certain islands or places tended to have its own
individuality. In the website called justlanded.com, it stated there that every
region in the Philippines has its own typical dishes, because every island has
its own ethnic group and therefore very varied regional cuisines.
In the province of Isabela, a dish called Bola-bola or
meatballs is known. At its most basic, meatballs consist of ground meat (one or
more varieties) rolled into a ball or oblong shape, and bound together with a
little egg, milk and perhaps breadcrumbs, and with some herbs and spices added
to the mix. They are then sautéed, fried or baked (Charney, 2016). Doused with
a healthy portion of gravy, stuffed between crunchy bread, or served bobbing in
a piping hot soup, meatballs are prepared and served in nearly limitless ways
(Crowley, 2015). According to Wikipedia, there are many types of meatballs
using different types of meats and spices. The term is sometimes extended to
meatless versions based on vegetables or fish.
In this research the Bola-bola will be distinct because
of it consist a vegetable ingredient called brassica rapa for health benefits.
In everyday usage, vegetables are certain parts of plants
that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal. Vegetables can be eaten
either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being
mostly low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and dietary
fiber (Wikipedia, 2017). Brassica rapa L. is a plant consisting of various
widely cultivated subspecies including the turnip (a root vegetable); napa
cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and cime di rapa (leaf vegetables); and Brassica
rapa subsp. oleifera, an oilseed which has many common names, including field mustard,
bird rape, keblock, and colza (Wikipedia, 2017).
There are a lot of varieties of brassica rapa. In the
website britannica.com it discussed bok choy (pak choi), also called spoon
cabbage (B. rapa, variety chinensis), to have glossy dark green leaves and
thick crisp white or green stalks in a loose head. Young tender plants are
often sold as “baby bok choy” and have a milder flavour. The plant is commonly
used in stir-fries and is especially popular in Asian cuisine. But the specific
brassica rapa that the researchers used was the pechay. Pechay (Brassica rapa
L. cv group Pak Choi) is an erect, biennial herb, cultivated as an annual about
15-30 cm tall in vegetative stage. Ovate leaves are arranged spirally and
spreading. The petioles are enlarged and grow upright forming a subcylindrical
bundle. Inflorescence is a raceme with pale yellow flowers. Seeds are 1 mm in
diameter and are reddish to blackish brown in color (Vicedo, 2010).
Pechay has many health benefits. Studies have suggested that
it has anti-tumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, phytoremediating properties
(Stuart Jr., 2015). Pechay has an excellent source of vitamin C, vitamin A (in
the form of carotenoids), and manganese, and a good source of zinc, bok choy
provides us with a concentration of these core conventional antioxidants. Yet,
its antioxidant support extends beyond these conventional antioxidants to a
wide range of other phytonutrient antioxidants. These phytonutrients include
flavonoids like quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin, as well as numerous
phenolic acids (including significant amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids) (King,
Obesity is one of today’s noticeable yet neglected public
health problem with serious health consequences such as hypertension, type 2
diabetes that affect individuals of all ages globally. Adolescents are
particularly prone to obesity owing to their reduction in physical activity. Dietary
habit of diet skipping, greater accessibility of foods void of nutritional
value as well as less dietary intake of fruits and vegetables was also found to
be major contributors of obesity among the adolescents. Most of the adolescents
consumed snacks and foods which contain too much fats and carbohydrates (Amoh,
& Appiah-Brempong, 2017). Risk
factors for both obesity and cancer include limited access to healthy
affordable foods (Ko et al., 2014).
Provincial, national and international public health
agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create
healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth (Orava,
Manske, & Hanning, 2017).
Foods available in the school food environment are
associated with the consumption of unhealthy food among adolescents (Azeredo et
al., 2016). School canteens represent an opportune setting in which to deliver
public health nutrition strategies because of their wide reach and frequent use
by children (Delaney et al., 2017). The school is a vital part in the
development of children’s dietary practices as children consume a substantial
proportion of their daily intake at school. The school environment offers an
ideal location for health education and intervention against physical inactivity
and poor nutritional intake. And while all schools taught nutrition and
physical activity, this was not backed up with actual facilities for practicing
physical activity or food preparation (Adalin et al., 2015).
Adding healthier foods to school concession stands has
positive effects on student satisfaction, sales, and reaches all students whether
or not they care about having healthy items available (Laroche et al., 2017).
Despite growing interest from government agencies,
non-governmental organizations and school boards in restricting or regulating
unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children, limited research has
examined the emerging knowledge base regarding school-based food and beverage
marketing in high-income countries (Velazquez, Black, & Kent, 2017).
It is time for public health practitioners to take a cue
from Big Food and their highly successful commercial marketing strategies, to
sell a product that everyone needs and wants – health (Reeder, & Johnson,
Bola-bola or meatballs is a special
dish that can be found in the province of Isabela, Philippines. These meatballs,
ground meat mixed with spices and then rolled into a ball, are filled with a
vegetable called brassica rapa. Brassica rapa has many health benefits which
the researchers wants to give to their respondents or customers. Providing
healthy food for students is a relief for students’ surrounded by unhealthy
food inside the school.
study will be conducted to critically examine the efficiency and effectiveness
if the Bola-bola with brassica rapa de Isabela is suitable for a new taste of
townsfolk while patronizing a cultural product. Also, knowing the significance
if this product produce a beneficiary factor for a healthy lifestyle.
Research Method and Design/s
research design will be used for this study and manifested to a selected sample
from a specific population in determining the customer’s preferences pertaining
in patronizing cultural product. This research will use descriptive method that
involves the operation of a questionnaire which sought to obtain data in
determining the answer, thoughts and opinions according to the millennial’s
Population Frame and Sample
respondents were randomly selected to the students of Rizal Technological
University from different strands and departments. From SHS strands;
Accountancy, Business and Management(ABM), Science, Technology, Engineering and
Mathematics(STEM), Industrial Arts(IA), Humanities and Social Sciences(HUMSS),
Information, and Communication Technology(ICT) and Sports Track. From colleges
department; College of Business and Entrepreneurial Technology(CBET), College
of Education(CED), Institute of Physical Education(IPE), College of Arts and
Sciences(CAS), and College of Engineering and Industrial Technology(CEIT).
Description of Respondents
researcher will select 50 respondents of student of Rizal Technological
University that is ready to patronize a cultural product and participate
industriously to complete this research.
survey questionnaire type will be utilized in the research instrument in order
to gather information that is extremely important in measuring the result of
researchers should ask permission to the participants if they want to be part
of this study and discuss the objective of this study. After the validation of
the research instrument, the researchers will be allowed to guide the
participants if they encounter some perplexing question. All the data that will
be collected from the respondents will be acknowledged and accepted for
participating in this research.
Statistical Treatment of Data
shows a descriptive statistics with brief descriptive coefficients that
summarize a given data set, which can be either a representation of the entire
population or a sample of it.
1. Weighted Mean – is a measure of central tendency, which
are sensitive to all values of the entire distribution. It refers to the
average of measured quantities.
= Weighted arithmetic mean
= sum of all the respondents
= sum of all the response
2. ANOVA or analysis of
variance – is used to determine whether there are any statistically significant
differences between the means of three or more independent groups.
% = x 100
Bola-bola with Brassica Rapa de Isabela
Directions: How do you feel about each statement? Choose
which option is the most suitable response by putting a check on the
= Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Neutral 4 = Agree
5 = Strongly Agree
Did the product satisfy your taste buds?
Do you prefer it to be crunchy?
Do you prefer it to be tender?
Do you prefer to eat it with a dressing?
Would you like it to be spicy?
Would you like it to taste saltier?
Would you like it to taste sweeter?
Does the taste of pechay overwhelming?
Would you like other varieties of vegetables in the bola-bola?
10. Would you
like other varieties of meat other than pork?
Did the product look presentable?
Do you like it looking like a street food?
Would you rather see it in a more attractive way?
Would you like it to be served newly cooked?
Would you like to see the food being cooked before your eyes?
Is it easy to bring around?
Is the size of the product worth it to the amount paid?
Do you prefer it on a stick?
Do you prefer it in a paper cup?
10. Is the
texture to your liking?
Is the product intriguing to you?
Did your curiosity lure you to purchase this product?
Is the price reasonable?
Do you consider nutritional benefits important in the food you intake?
Does the service of the seller affect your decision in buying the
M., Holdsworth, M., McCullough, F., & Norimah, A. (2015). Whole school mapping to investigate the school
environment’s potential to promote a healthy diet
and physical activity in Malaysia. Malaysian
Journal of Nutrition, 21(1), 1-14. Retrieved
from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282952314_Whole_school_mapping_to _investigate_the_school_environment%27s_potential_to_promote_a_healthy_di et_and_physical_activity_in_Malaysia
I., & Appiah-Brempong, E. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors of obesity
among senior high school students in the
Adansi North district of Ghana. DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20174247
C., Rezende, L., Canella, D., & Levy, R. (2016). Food environments in
schools and in the immediate
vicinity are associated with unhealthy food consumption among Brazilian adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 88. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.03.026
rapa. (2017). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_rapa
N. (2016). Around The World In…
Meatballs. Retrieved from https://www.finedininglovers.com/stories/types-of-meatballs-italian-swedish/
cabbage. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/plant/Chinese- cabbage#Article-History
C. (2015). Planet Meatball: 20 Meatball
Varieties Around the World. http://www.seriouseats.com/2015/01/meatball-style-guide-varieties-around-the- world.html
T., Wyse, R., Yoong, S., & Wolfenden, L. (2017). Cluster randomized controlled trial of a consumer behavior
intervention to improve healthy food purchases
from online canteens. American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.158329
G. (2008). Health, Medical and Clinical
benefits of Brassica consumption. http://www.brassica.info/info/crop-enduses/nutritional-benefits.php
L., Perry, C., Mariscal, N., & Thompson, B. (2014). Abstract A25:
Evaluation of the food environment in
rural towns in eastern Washington. Cancer
Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention,
23(11 Supplement), 25. DOI: 10.1158/1538- 7755.DISP13-A25
H., Hradek, C., Hansen, K., & Wansink B. (2017). Healthy Concessions: High School Students’ Responses to Healthy
Concession Stand Changes. Journal of School Health, 87(2), 98-105. DOI:
Filipino cuisine: Varied regional cuisines. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.justlanded.com/english/Philippines/Philippines-Guide/Culture/Local- Filipino-cuisine
(2017). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meatball
T., Manske, S., & Hanning, R. (2017). Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school
health framework: evaluation during the early
years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation. DOI: 10.24095/hpcdp.37.9.05
cuisine. (2017). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_cuisine
R., & Johnson, M. (2014). Health is the New Pepsi Learning How to Sell
Health like a Marketer.
Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266785402_Health_is_the_New_Pepsi _Learning_How_to_Sell_Health_like_a_Marketer?ev=prf_high
G., Jr., M.D. (2015). Petchay Brassica
chinensis (L.). Retrieved from http://www.stuartxchange.org/Pechay.html
(2017). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetable
C., Black, J., & Kent, M. (2017). Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools: A Review of the Evidence. International Journal of Environmental Research
and Public Health, 14(9),1054. DOI:
M. (2010). Nutritive Value of Pechay,
Brassica rapa L. Retrieved from http://foodrecap.net/health/pechay-nutrients/