ENVIROMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES? DefinitionEnvironmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) are technologies that have the potential forsignificantly improved environmental performance relative to other technologies. ESTs protect theenvironment, are less polluting, use resources in a sustainable manner, recycle more of their wastesand products, and handle all residual wastes in a more environmentally acceptable way than thetechnologies for which they are substitutes. ESTs are not just individual technologies. They canalso be defined as total systems that include know-how, procedures, goods and services, andequipment, as well as organizational and managerial procedures for promoting environmentalsustainability.Defining environmentally sound technologies in an absolute sense is difficult since theenvironmental performance of a technology depends upon its impacts on specific humanpopulations, biota and ecosystems, and the availability of supporting infrastructure and humanresources for the management, monitoring and maintenance of the technology, as well as thesustainability of natural systems. The soundness of environmental technology is also influenced bytemporal and geographical factors, to the extent that some technologies may be environmentallysound now but may be replaced in the future by even cleaner technologies.Likewise, what is environmentally sound in one country or region may not be in another, unless itis redesigned or adapted to make it appropriate for addressing local needs. Thus the termenvironmentally sound technology can be applied to all technologies and their transition tobecoming more environmentally sound; this ranges from basic technologies to fully integratedtechnologies. This definition captures the full life cycle flow of the material, energy and water inthe production and consumption system. It also implies the development and application ofenvironmentally sound technologies underpinned by more holistic environmental managementstrategies based on the characteristics of natural systems, which include: species diversity;resilience; adaptiveness; regenerative capacity; interconnectedness; spatial and temporalfluctuation; etc. examples of ESTs that emulate natural processes are Ecological Engineering andEco technologies.For example nuclear technology is good for environment but problem with the waste productsbecause these waste materials are to save for 1000 years.so that is the problem.? Main FeaturesTechnologies aid governments, organizations and individuals to reach environmental objectivesand targets without compromising the quality of life. However, technologies and processestypically have negative impacts upon the environment. For example, they utilize non-renewableresources and generate waste and pollution throughout their life.A number of tools are available to identify which technologies provide the best environmentalprotection. Environmental Technology Assessment (EnTA) assesses the likely impacts of theadoption, implementation and use of new or existing technologies. Environmental RiskAssessment (EnRA) is a systematic and iterative approach that predicts the probability of effects ofan action or condition on the environment. Environmental Verification of Technology (EVT) is thethird party verification of a particular technology's or processes environmental performance. Theintegration or overlap of these three tools facilitates the adoption and use of environmentally soundtechnologies.The impetus for ESTs includes political frameworks (legislation, multilateral environmentalagreements (MEAs), regulations, voluntary agreements, policies etc.); stakeholder demands(community, industry associations, shareholders, media, contract etc.); economics (cost savings,expenditure, trade etc.); and image (corporate, environmental, social, state-of- the-art).Barriers to adoption or transfer to ESTs include lack of or inadequate information; a focus on shortterm costs and savings; organizational priorities; lack of political or managerial willingness; andlack of support or guidance for EST transfer.? The benefits of ESTs include:? Reduced operating costs and increasing profits – resources (raw materials, energy, etc.) areused more efficiently and effectively; less money is required for pollution and waste treatment;lower insurance premiums or interest rates; and higher market value of greenproducts/services.? Creation of new markets – old markets and customers are retained; new environmentallyresponsible markets are created, new customers and clients gained.? Reduced pollution license fees or risk of litigation – reduced expense for pollution licenses,permits etc.; reduced environmental risks and associated litigation; enhanced readiness to meetchanging environmental regulations.? Improved corporate image and better relations/partnerships with stakeholders, media,community etc.? Increased staff motivation and productivity due to improved working conditions.? Increased competitiveness and opportunities – new contracts; expanded business networks.? Innovation new technologies, processes, goods, services, procedures, etc developed Improvedability to meet sustainability and multi-lateral environmental agreements.? Case Studies and Examples? DistilleryA coconut arrack distillery in Sri Lanka produces roughly 6,750 liters of absolute alcohol per day.The company seeks to improve its process efficiency by addressing fuel use and solid and liquidwaste production. By introducing new technologies, changes processes and improvinghousekeeping, the company reduced its fuel usage by 22% (and therefore reduced its carbondioxide and sulfur dioxide loadings), reduced alcohol levels in spent wash by 95% and reduced thenumber of broken bottles and therefore solid waste levels. The payback period for investment costswas 3 months. The company is saving around US $88,900 per year.? Knitting MillLow performance dying machines in a Beijing knitting mill were replaced with an environmentallysound jet dying machine. The center for environmentally Sound technology transfer worked withthe knitting company to identify and assess needs and requirements and implement the newsystem. The new jet dying machine had a payback period of 2.7 years and reduced annual chemicalconsumption by 53 tones, reduced water usage by 48% per 100 kg of cloth, reduced carbon dioxideemissions by 3.78 tons per year and reduced steam by 91% per 100 kg of cloth.? Target Sectors / StakeholdersGovernments, industry associations, financial institutions, the community, non-governmentorganizations and businesses/organizations are responsible for promoting and encouraging theadoption of ESTs. Research institutions, industry associations, etc. drive EST development.Customers, clients, shareholders, government and the community create demand.? Transfer of environmentally sound technologiesThe Government has encouraged the industrial sector to utilize clean production processes. For thispurpose, various incentives are available to industry which includes preferential treatment in loanfacilities by banks and DFIs, and lower import tariffs on anti-pollution equipment. There has notbeen much headway on the adoption of environmental management systems because of the lack ofawareness and the higher cost of ISO certification. However, the government is giving dueimportance to the matter and the proposal is under consideration to devise a mechanism so that PSImay be accredited to do ISO 14000 certification locally.The Swiss government has granted US$1 million for the implementation of the second phase of thePak-Swiss cooperation program. The SDPI was supported in enhancing capacity and expertiseconcerning technology transfer by the Norwegian Agency for International Cooperation(NORAD), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Swiss DevelopmentCorporation (SDC). The Environment and Urban Affairs Division and Pakistan EnvironmentalProtection Agency have been supported in capacity building by a World Bank funded project onEnvironmental Protection and Resource Conservation.? CPEC and environmentally sound technologiesChina and Pakistan can play a major role in promoting the Belt and Road initiative as all-weatherstrategic cooperative partners. Among the countries along the Belt and Road initiative, CPEC isone of the earliest, fastest and most effective project,” Ambassador Sun said while delivering alecture on the ‘Belt and Road’ initiative jointly organized by the Chinese embassy and thePakistan-China InstituteEnvironmentally sound technologies (ESTs) exist today to help industries and companies achievesignificant improvements in their environmental performance by reducing pollution, waste, and theuse of energy and raw materials. Most of the technologies provide end-of- pipe solutions, an interimbut still important step. In addition, as industries and companies are demonstrating, the use of ESTsbrings direct benefits to the bottom line.Similarly green technology can play a great role in this perspective. Green technology is anencompassing term. It deals with using science and technology in order to protect the environment.A lot of techniques fall under this term such as the use of green chemistry, environmentalmonitoring, and more. all of these things have to deal with making sure that the environmentremains protected. This technology is used to breathe life back into a damaged ecosystem. It is alsoreferred to as environmental technology or clean technology.The main goal is to conserve nature, and to remedy the negative impact that humans have on it.Since the 1990’s a lot of focus is being put on green technology. It offers a lot of benefits to notonly nature itself but also for a clean and greener human lifestyle. human beings need earth to stayalive. This technology ensures that the earth remains healthy for all life to continue existing.? Implementing more efficient environmental policyStrengthen and extend the use of economic instruments (e.g. taxes and charges) to implementenvironmental policy in more environmentally effective and economically efficient ways and toprogress towards sustainable production and consumption;Continue to assure appropriate enforcement of regulatory measures;Ensure that voluntary agreements become more transparent, effective and efficient;Extend environmental legislation and policy attention to cover all types of contaminated sites;Review financial assistance programmers used to implement environmental policy, assessing theirenvironmental and economic effectiveness and their compatibility with the polluter pays principle(as proposed in the 1994 EPR);Increase economic analysis of environmental policy measures, with the aim of achievingenvironmental objectives more cost-effectively. Better integrate environmental concerns inphysical planning, transport, agriculture, energy and urban policies;Ensure that co-ordinated and integrated sectorial plans, associated with the Second BasicEnvironment Plan, are developed through close co-operation among the ministries concerned, andassure accountability for implementation of the plans;Take the necessary steps to systematically carry out strategic environmental assessment duringthe development of environmentally relevant policies, plans, and programs;Strengthen efforts to buy and use ;greener goods; (e.g. via green procurement policies and thegreen consumer movement) so as to promote more sustainable production and consumptionpatterns;Continue to restructure environment-related taxes in a more environmentally friendly way;Review and further develop the system of road fuel and motor vehicle taxes, with a view toPromoting more sustainable modes of transport, to internalizing environmental costs, while payingattention to the demand for transport infrastructure and to introducing more flexibility in theallocation of the revenue;Continue to reduce sectorial subsidies that have negative environmental implications. continueefforts to reduce NOx and NMVOC emissions, in light of the persistent NO2 and photochemicaloxidant issue in metropolitan areas;Further develop and implement comprehensive policies to control fine particulate emissions fromboth mobile and stationary sources and to meet environmental quality standards;Continue efforts to reduce emissions of toxic chemicals, ensuring in particular that voluntaryagreements are efficient and effective;Use cost-benefit analysis more systematically in integrating major air management and transportdecisions, including those for road investment;Strengthen the management of motor vehicle traffic through a comprehensive package of policiesincluding traffic demand management measures (e.g. land use planning, economic instruments,information technology) and measures promoting the use of more fuel efficient vehicles and of lesspolluting control modes.