Female support it, ranging from social, cultural and religious

 Female genital mutilation is an ancient tradition, non-therapeutic surgical procedure which involves total or partial removal of the external parts of the female genitalia. It has been seen as a normal practice for generations but is subject to international controversy. This is a practice that is both Incredibly detrimental, unethical and dangerous to its victims which is also a violation of basic human rights. Various reasons have been put forward by people to support it, ranging from social, cultural and religious reasons which I will view in depth in my essay.  An estimated 130 million young girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation worldwide. Millions of women a year are at risk of undergoing some form of FGM. This equals out to nearly 6,000 women at risk per day. In my essay, I will discuss Implications of Female Genital Mutilation in Developing Societies, the history of FGM and ways to raise awareness in the desire to abolish it completely.   Where did FGM originate from? / where is it most common? The origin of female genitalia mutation varies greatly but from research I have gathered that it originated from ancient Egypt and had later spread to east Africa but is believed that FGM was around for centuries, this indicates and shows why FGM is most common in Egypt, Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan. Statistics show that these countries have a high prevalence of FGM with Somalia at 98%, Egypt at 91%, Sudan at 88% and Eritrea at 74%. However, it is still practiced in places outside of Africa such as Iraq and the middle east. Support  There are many reasons as to why people support FGM ranging from social, cultural and religious reasons. Reasons for supporting FGM include the beliefs that it is a “good tradition”, a religious requirement, or a necessary rite of passage to womanhood or that it ensures cleanliness or better marriage prospects. Many people from communities that practice it say that it is rooted in local culture and that the tradition has been passed from one generation to another. Culture and the preservation of cultural identity serve as the underlying impetus for continuing the practice. For example, the Maasai which is an ethnic group practice FGM believing that if a female has not undergone this procedure that they are not fit to carry out certain traditions. They also believe that It marks the point when a girl stops being a girl and becomes a woman.  Because Maasai girls are traditionally considered children until they are circumcised, it is seen as imperative for a Maasai girl to undergo the circumcision rite before she is married. This strongly ingrained cultural belief propels families to go to great lengths to complete the circumcision. They believe It elevates a girl from childhood to the status of adulthood, and is necessary for a girl to be considered a complete woman. The Maasai,say, “Female circumcision is our culture. Why should we be forced to abandon it when we were born into it? Abandoning our culture would be annoying our ancestors. It would bring a curse to the entire community.” this shows that they greatly practice there culture and therefore finding it hard to abandon the culture.    Education/ Residence   I believe that the more people are aware of FGM and its consequences there is more of a chance that FGM practice may decrease from research I have concluded that there is a direct correlation between a woman’s views towards FGM and her educational background and work status. Data from DHS shows that employed women were less likely to support FGM compared with the unemployed. Women with little education  or no education at all were more likely to support the practice than those who have  a secondary or higher education experience .Data gathered form a Sudanese survey in 1998 with women participating form 15- to 49-years-old show that 80 percent of women with no education or only primary education support FGM, compared to only 55 percent of those with senior secondary or higher schooling. Overall this shows that a woman’s age does not see to influence FGM but their level of education does.  Paragraph 1: FGM is one of the harmful practices that is widely practiced in 28 African countries, parts of the Middle East,  some communities in Australia,  and the immigrant population in America and Europe originating from FGM practicing countries. The Procedure which is painful by itself has immediate and long-term consequences on the health and of women and young girls. I will be looking at the long term and immediate complications of FGM. There are many complications to FGM ranging from a young age to even elderly people which have undergone the procedure. There are immediate physical problems which include Intense pain or and lots of bleeding that can lead to shock during and after the procedure. Infections such as wound infection, causing tetanus. The use of blunt instruments used by unskilled operators can cause damage to adjoining organs. Some victims also experience Urine retention caused by the swelling or blockage of the urethra, Reoccurring urinary tract infections. The most severe complications of FGM is the increase risk of maternal and child morbidity due to obstructed labor which justifies that women who have undergone FGM are twice as likely to die during child birth and more likely to give birth to a stillborn child than another woman. This can also cause problems to the newborn child as obstructed labor can cause brain damage to the infant and complications for the mother such as fistula formation which is the abnormal opening of the bladder or rectum which can lead to incontinence.