# Gravitational universe using a force which acts instantaneously, of

Gravitational force is one of the
first fundamental interactions to be discovered and studied by human beings.
Newton in his Principia published in 1687 introduces the law of universal
gravitation which states that  an
object attracts every other object in the universe using a force which acts instantaneously, of magnitude that is inversely
proportional to the square of
the distance between them and directly
proportional to the product of
their masses i.e.

We can represent the
gravitational force as coming from a gravitational potential

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due distribution of mass density of matter

,

(1)

In 1905 Albert Einstein formulated the special
theory of relativity based on two postulates, the principle of relativity i.e.
the laws of physics have same form in all inertial frames of reference and the
constancy of the speed of light. It’s quite reasonable to think the laws of
physics to be same even in non-inertial frames of reference; this leads us to
the General theory of relativity.  We can
extend eq.1 relativistically by replacing laplacian operator by d’Alemvert
operator and mass density by a Lorentz covariant source

Where

is the flat space wave operator and T is the trace of stress
energy tensor. A scalar theory of gravity such as this obeys the postulates of
SR but it doesn’t predict the deflection of light and the right perihelion precession
of Mercury’s orbit 1. However, this
illustrates the need to have a finite velocity for gravitational interactions in
any relativistic gravitational theory. Thus any gravitational waves must be a
natural consequence of any relativistic theory.Gravitational force is one of the
first fundamental interactions to be discovered and studied by human beings.
Newton in his Principia published in 1687 introduces the law of universal
gravitation which states that  an
object attracts every other object in the universe using a force which acts instantaneously, of magnitude that is inversely
proportional to the square of
the distance between them and directly
proportional to the product of
their masses i.e.

We can represent the
gravitational force as coming from a gravitational potential

due distribution of mass density of matter

,

(1)

In 1905 Albert Einstein formulated the special
theory of relativity based on two postulates, the principle of relativity i.e.
the laws of physics have same form in all inertial frames of reference and the
constancy of the speed of light. It’s quite reasonable to think the laws of
physics to be same even in non-inertial frames of reference; this leads us to
the General theory of relativity.  We can
extend eq.1 relativistically by replacing laplacian operator by d’Alemvert
operator and mass density by a Lorentz covariant source

Where

is the flat space wave operator and T is the trace of stress
energy tensor. A scalar theory of gravity such as this obeys the postulates of
SR but it doesn’t predict the deflection of light and the right perihelion precession
of Mercury’s orbit 1. However, this
illustrates the need to have a finite velocity for gravitational interactions in
any relativistic gravitational theory. Thus any gravitational waves must be a
natural consequence of any relativistic theory.