“Impact these enormous needs, distance education has been given

“Impact of technology on Teacher education
(Massive Open Online Course (MOOC))”

Assignment no. II
Subject: Advance course on Educational Psychology
Submitted by: Huma Hameed
Roll no. MUST/FA17-RED-007/AJK
Submitted to: Dr. Saira Shah
Semester: 1st
Department of Education
Mirpur University of Science & Technology
Date:4th January, 2017.

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Impact of
technology on Teacher education (Massive Open Online Course (MOOC))

 

CONTENTS:

ü UNESCO REPORT

ü DEFINITION

ü BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF MOOC  

ü INTRODUCTION

ü WHERE DID MOOCS ORIGINATE FROM?

ü  LEARNING THEORIES OF MOOC

ü TYPES
OF MOOCS

ü DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN MOOCS AND TRADITIONAL ONLINE COURSES

ü  HOW LEARNING IS ENHANCED IN MOOCS

ü ADVANTAGES

ü DISADVANTAGES

ü CONCERNS ABOUT MOOCS?

ü THE
APPLICATION FEASIBILITY OF MOOC IN TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

ü  WHY TEACHERS SELECT MOOCS

ü  TYPES OF MOOCS STUDENTS

ü THE
APPLICATION OF MOOC IN TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

 

 

 

 

 

ü UNESCO REPORT:

According to a
UNESCO monitoring report, by 2015, the world will require at least 2.6 million
teachers more to ensure that every child get primary education

To come across
these enormous needs, distance education has been given as best solution.

ü DEFINITION:

“MOOCs are
courses designed for large numbers of participants that can be accessed by
anyone anywhere as long as they have an internet connection, are open to
everyone without entry qualifications, and offer a full/complete course
experience online for free.”

In more detail
the given table presents the different dimensions of MOOCs related to this
definition.

 

 

 

Dimension definition of MOOC

M

Massive

An online course created for
Huge number of members

O

Open

Course can be obtained by
almost anybody, at anyplace
they just require web
availability

 

 

Open as free from place, speed and time.
 

 

 

Open to everyone and do not consider capabilities.

 

 

Course may be completed for free
 

O

Online

Course is done on the web

C

Courses

Unit of Study

 

 

The course offers a full
course encounter including
1. instructive substance
2. help collaboration 
among
peers (counting a few yet
restricted collaboration with
scholastic staff)
3. exercises/assignments, tests, counting input
4. some sort of (non formal)
Acknowledgment alternatives
5. an investigation control/syllabus

 

ü BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF MOOC: 

   
The basic philosophy of MOOCs is 3A’s i.e., Anytime, Anyone, Anywhere.
It is a web based course intended to give unlimited participation and
open access through internet.

ü INTRODUCTION:

Educator professional improvement is the process of always
refreshing proficient success, increasing intellectual learning, improving the skillful
aptitudes, and improving instructing capacity. With the conversion of learning
science and the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT),
the method of teacher proficient advancement is stood up to with challenge, and
the new climbing MOOC agenda gives additional way to teacher proficient
advancement. The MOOC context is an instrument for teacher proficient improvement
on account of instructor’s proficient attributes, teacher’s needs, and the cost
of advancement. The use of MOOC frame to teacher proficient advancement, be
that as it may, is still at the experimental stage; what’s more, we have to
bear on firmly inquiry on the strategy, quality and approximation of the use of
MOOC to teacher proficient advancement. Coursera completed courses of teacher
proficient development effectively, and built up an arrangement of instructor
training educational program in collaboration with organizations of progressive
education and social culture organizations, which can be seen as the pioneer
and determiners in the field.

ü WHERE DID MOOCS ORIGINATED FROM?

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) advanced from the open
Education Resources (OER) development as an approach to associate open access
computerized materials to systems of students, and might be viewed as a
continuation in the improvement of separation training (Daniel 2014).

The term ‘MOOC’ was initially enunciated by Dave Cormier
(University of Prince Edward Island, Canada) to expose a course created by
George Siemens and Stephen Downes on ‘Connectivism and Connectivity in
Knowledge’ in 2008. This spear heading MOOC and those that immediately took
after depending on the connectivist academic standards of gaining socially from
others inside appropriated systems. They were open in structure and worked in
collaboration. Participating web culture and an growing utilization of, and proficiency
with, innovative instruments had given a situation to the open model to embellish.

By 2012, colleges in the US and UK, amazed by the worrying
advancement of MOOCs demonstrated for forward-looking education and thrilled by
the believable outcomes the model made for teaching and learning, started to
develop their own specific adaptations. This second period of MOOCs was directed
by the ascent of business stages (Coursera, Udacity, EdX, Udemy) and planted by
Ivy League foundations, for example, Stanford, Harvard, and MIT. These xMOOCs
(as they were later called to separate them from the connectivist or cMOOCs)
were usual in outline. Utilizing instructivist teaching method they depended strongly
on short recordings and test evaluations; collaboration between students was irrelevant.
They pushed the thought of ‘gigantic’ by drawing in ever-bigger gatherings of
people (some had more than 200,000 registrants) and provoked the New York Times
to call 2012 ‘The Year of the MOOC’ (New York Times 2012).

ü LEARNING THEORIES OF MOOC:

The MOOC thought is based on basic principles of two learning
theories, namely:

1) Cognitive
Behaviorism (teaching and learning are perceived as a energetic process in act),

2) Connectivism,
(that expresses the principles of educational revolution within the networking
method of training)

ü TYPES
OF MOOCS

MOOCs have grown
overtime into three different distinctions: xMOOCs, cMOOCs, and quasi-MOOCs.

1.     
XMOOCs:

XMOOC is an old
fashioned type, where the teacher is the professional and the learner is the consumer.
An xMOOC possesses an outdated view of knowledge based on the “hub and spoke”
model, where the hub is the teacher and the spokes lead to the students. These
courses mostly contains little outdoor materials, and mirror traditional
learning by using video lectures and quizzes (McGreal, Kinuthia, Marshall,
& McNamara, 2013).

 

2.     
CMOOCs:

A cMOOC is
based on a connectivist pedagogical model, and the courses offered by Siemens
and Cormier were cMOOCs (King & Nanfito, 2013). cMOOCs are usually open and
decentralized with restricted structure. Learners are autonomous and see
knowledge as reproductive with a focus on sharing and connecting with other members
through blogs, forums, and an LMS (McGreal et al., 2013).

3.     
Quasi-MOOCs:

 A quasi-MOOC is a third type that provides
web-based materials as open educational resources (OER). This MOOC type aims to
enhance specific learning tasks and provides tiny or no social interaction, (McGreal
et al., 2013).

ü DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN MOOCS AND TRADITIONAL ONLINE COURSES:

The
difference between a MOOC and a old-style course is that a MOOC is fully
deliberate. You agree that you want to join, you decide how to contribute, and
then you take part. If you’re not motivated, then you’re not in the
MOOC.

 

ü HOW LEARNING IS ENHANCED IN MOOCS:

According to R.
Kop, learning within MOOC is enhanced by four main kinds of

Activities:

1.     
Aggregation, variability of resources to work and after
reading, watching or listening to some information, the student will reflect
and make connection to what he or she knows before or to earlier the course.

2.     
 Creation,
after this reflection and understandable process, learners will create
something by themselves by using any facility available on the Internet, such
as Flickr, Second Life, Yahoo Groups, Facebook, YouTube, iGoogle, NetVibes,
etc.;

3.     
Sharing, students will discuss their contributions
with others on the network. This involvement in activities is accepted to be
important in learning (Kop, 2011).

 

ü ADVANTAGES:

·        
Tuition fees is not required

·        
Open availability, showing high level
professors at schools that would otherwise be not available for huge population
of the World

·        
Open courses for all involved, irrespective of place,
resulting in a more varied student base

·        
Students can cooperate with their peers from
different parts of the world.

·        
Students can share their doings, review and
receive others feedback. Provide online collaboration amongst students.

·        
Some energetic professors have start global
sharing of knowledge and make it more appealing. Many confess that MOOCs help
them re-assess their tutorial methods, while enhancing knowledge sharing.

·        
Well-organized courses by renowned professors
from great universities

·        
Diversity

·        
Flexibility

·        
Self-pacing

·        
Collaboration with course buddies from the
whole world

·        
Immediate assessment and response

ü DISADVANTAGES:

·        
It’s easy for learners to drop out.

·        
MOOCs do not give active feedback because of
great numbers of students.

·        
Participants need to be accountable for their
own work because MOOCs offer self-directed education.

·        
Technical issues

·        
Inadequate actual world engagement

ü CONCERNS ABOUT MOOCS?

·        
Plagiarism

·        
Motivation
lacks

·        
Faculty priority
over curriculum

·        
Reporting of capabilities

·        
Authentication

·        
Scalability

·        
Worth and Finishing
point Rates

·        
Award and Acknowledgement
of Credit

·        
Teaching
Practice

 

ü THE
APPLICATION FEASIBILITY OF MOOC IN TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

            MOOC is a hotly
debated issue in Education area however it is as yet a newcomer in educator
proficient improvement. The achievability of its application in educator
proficient improvement still should be assessed. This segment will manage such
an inquiry from three generally persuasive points of view, including MOOC –
related policy, quality, and value.

·        
Policy

Instructor proficient improvement is constantly guided by national
policies. Consequently, steady strategies are the base also, presupposition for
the utilization of MOOC to educator proficient improvement. Instructors’
societal position is rising as of late, and instructive degrees are winding up
progressively and more alluring. This pattern mirrored the acknowledgment of
educator’s activity from the general public, and it additionally conveys
individuals’ higher desire and requests towards instructors. This calls for
instructor proficient improvement all through the entirety vocation period.
Along these lines, different policies were issued to advance educator
proficient improvement, and loads of computerized instruction assets were
produced to serve the educators. In China, for instance, the National Education
Division 8 propelled National Elite Teacher Education Course Pool Program in
November 2012, and reported initial 200 conceded course in April 2013. This is
China’s reaction to the training change in the advanced period, which exhibits
China’s accentuation on instructor training. The Educator Bureau of National
Education Department guaranteed its timetable on advancing educator
organization furthermore, digitalized instructor training, proceeding with
National Elite Educator Education Course Pool Program, and planning and
advancing superb MOOC courses on instructor training. The legislature has
perceived the significance of educator training change with digitalization
energizes and encourages the improvement of MOOC courses on instructor
training, and gave strong policies to the use of MOOC in instructor proficient
advancement.

·        
Quality

The education effectiveness of MOOC system in teacher professional
development is affected by both fund and its characteristics. MOOC makes it
possible for teachers to have classes at any time at any place, which breaks
the limitation of synchronic education. 
The openness and flexibility of MOOC  
has   changed   the  
traditional   understanding   of   classroom
teaching.  With MOOC, every education-related
party   can   contribute  
to   its   quality  
improvement.   The   supportive policies from the government
provides necessary grants, and the contributions from the MOOC consumers, especially
teachers, will guarantee the quality of MOOC in this area.

First, scientific and normative standards are the keys.  Establishing standards is a more and more
popular practice in   teacher   education  
reform,   which   is  
also   a   sign  
of   professionalization    of   
teacher    education.    Normative   
standards  are  the 
products  of  the 
quality  assessment  in 
certain  fields,  which 
also  reflect  the 
needs  of  government. 
Therefore,     professional     association     and    
education     department of the
government cooperate frequently to set up standards.  Through 
such  a  process, 
teachers’  professional  needs 
and  social  requirements 
are  all  considered 
in  issuing  standards in the form of policies or reports.
Those standards will be both professional the authoritative.  The application of MOOC in teacher
professional development also needs such  
standards.

Second, the effectiveness of MOOC in teacher education development
is the core concern.  Many  traditional 
teacher  education  providers 
and  teachers  still 
doubt  that  remote 
education  could  ensure 
the  quality  of 
teacher  education  as 
what  the  traditional 
school  education  could 
do.  Obviously,  the delivery method is not the key to the
function. Garrison evaluated and analyzed many remote teacher education,
and  claimed  that 
the  remote  programs 
could  achieve  the 
same  quality  as 
those  face-to-face  programs.

·        
Value

All the instructor proficient advancement programs have their
reliable, persistent, and interrelated center esteem, which intends to secure
showing quality by creating instructors’ information and aptitudes on
educational module setting, instructing strategies and social condition.
Hypothetically, these many-sided information and aptitudes can be accomplished
through a arrangement of dynamic instructor professional advancement programs.
In the projects, instructors can trade and collaborate with different
instructors, researchers and specialists in instruction, and they can likewise
accomplish more careful correspondence with understudies to increase
significant criticism. Other than the fundamental knowledge, abilities and
systems, instructors need to consider their own instruction rehearses, which is
basic for their life – long learning and commission to showing course. The
center estimations of on-grounds educator proficient improvement programs are
as per the life esteems and profession reasoning that school students are
seeking after. In any case, when the educator proficient advancement programs
are placed in a virtual condition, the effect of MOOC framework on the programs
still stays doubtful.

ü WHY TEACHERS SELECT MOOCS:

Teachers
usually give four core reasons for MOOC usage during professional development:

·        
Convenience

·        
Free
of charge

·        
Continuity

·        
Development
of Pedagogical Skills

 

ü  TYPES OF MOOCS STUDENTS:

It is more
difficult to know and understand students’ needs in a MOOC, than in a more
typical online class:

Hill (2013)
identified different types of MOOC participants:

·        
No shows –Apply and register, but don’t even login once

·        
Observers –log in and go through content, but do not
continue further

·        
Drop-Ins –Try to achieve a specific goal, which once fulfilled,
ends the course for them

·        
Passive Participants –Read content,
but don’t take part and do assignments and projects

·        
Active Participants –completely involved
to complete the course and all activities

 

ü THE
APPLICATION OF MOOC IN TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

MOOC has exhibited its potential in educator proficient
improvement. MOOC is promising for its cMOOC system, connectivism base and
logical assessment and accreditations. Be that as it may, the quality and
assortment obviously assets still l can’t take care of the demand of educator
proficient advancement. The absence of reserve influenced the quality and
amount of MOOC course assets, which could barely address the issues of educator
proficient advancement. Till 2014, there are 58 courses identified with teacher
proficient advancement, among which just a single course is in Chinese. The
dialect obstruction influences the learning results and instructors learning
premium. Despite the fact that a few experts are outlining and creating MOOC
courses for instructor proficient improvement, there are still a considerable
measure to improve the situation the readiness of expert, viable and helpful
instructor training courses. The present online instructor training courses are
excessively broad, and can’t address the issues of educators with various
attributes, different disciplines, or diverse locale, which bargains their
instructive effectiveness and impact.

The long-term adequacy and supportability of MOOC are as yet
begging to be proven wrong, in any case, as most scientists assent, MOOC do
have long-term impact on the instructor proficient improvement instruction.
China government requires, in its 2015-2020 nation educator preparing program,
to collect what’s more, use high -quality expert improvement assets to address
the issues of nation educator preparing through pursuing and creating on the
web educational module and generative preparing educational module with awards
from the legislature. The accomplishment of MOOC relies upon the essential
training foundations’ acknowledgment and its viability in educator proficient
advancement. Should the course accreditation what’s more, credit acknowledgment
issue tackled, MOOC have huge preferred standpoint over customary classes. The
achievement of MOOC is expectable. The use of MOOC in instructor proficient
advancement will most likely bring common advantage to both instructors and MOOC.
Instructors can get high-quality instructor proficient advancement for nothing,
and MOOC can extend its clients through the assistance of instructors. Be that
as it may, we still need time to see whether the two instructors and business
establishments can discover shared benefit. The use of MOOC in instructor
proficient improvement is still in the exact stage, and test information
investigation is required for additionally look into. Also, cMOOC system and
institutionalized learning accreditation did not bring perfect results, which
still needs assist examination.

 

References

1.     
A Prospective Study on the Application of MOOC
in Teacher Professional Development in China Zhaolin Ji, Yanhua Cao, College of Education Science, Nantong University, China, Universal
Journal of Educational Research 4(9): 2061-2067, 2016, http://www.hrpub.org, DOI:
10.13189/ujer.2016.040917

2.     
Definition Massive Open Online Courses, Version
1.1 dated 12 March 2015, Elearning Communication open-data

3.     
Comparative
Professional Pedagogy 6(4)/2016, Institute of Pedagogical and Adult Education,
NAPS of Ukraine, DOI: 10.1515/rpp-2016-0042

4.     
“GO-LAB MOOC–AN
ONLINE COURSE FOR TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOP MENT IN THE FIELD OF
INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE EDUCATION” By Diana Dikke, Nils Faltin, IMC information
multimedia communication, AG(Germany)[email protected], [email protected]

5.     
Teaching an Online Pedagogy MOOC by Sandra L.
Miller, Ed.D., MERLOT Journal
of Online Learning and Teaching, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2015