INTRODUCTION (Shapara& Leah, 2010). The job cannot just lead

 

INTRODUCTION

Burnout has been recognized for many years as a danger to work on various types of people-oriented occupations such as human services, education, and healthcare. The therapeutic or service relationships that such providers develop with recipients require a persistent and intense level of personal, emotional contact. While such relationships may be rewarding and engaging, they may also be quite stressful. Within such professions, the prevailing norms must be selfless and must first put other needs; work for a long time and do all it takes to help a client or patient or student; go to the extra mile and give it all.. Recently, as well as other occupations have become more orientated to the “high-touch” customer service, the combustion phenomenon has also become relevant for these jobs (Maslach, Leiter, 1997).In modern society, quality management and service on Jobs are a challenge for individuals and organizations. In this context, organizations should use incentive strategies healthy working conditions, with a view to preventing and protecting workers from current problems such as the stress associated with work (Grau-Alberola, Gil-Monte, and Figueiredo-Ferraz, 2009).

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Depression is a serious but treatable mental illness that manifests itself with some emotional, mental, and somatic symptoms. The most striking feature is the marked decrease in mood and pleasure. The depressed person is emotionally unhappy, pessimistic and desperate. He does not enjoy things he once did with love, he feels sad and lonely. Interest in himself and his surroundings diminishes; inner affliction, restlessness, etc. These feelings prevent one’s daily life and last for months; adversely affects the mental activity and general health of the person. While depression is an important health problem in itself, its association with other illnesses and its effect on adverse outcomes is also significant (Shapara& Leah, 2010). The job cannot just lead to depression and there are other factors besides work. Situations triggered by working life of depression; financial problems, inability to leave the job, demands for extraordinary effort, and ambiguous roles. Probably many people live in one or more of their current jobs (Toker, & Biron, 2012).According to World Health Organization criteria (ICD-10), a depressive episode is characterized by a sad mood that lasts at least two weeks. Typical indications vary from person to person. Not enjoying life, slowing movements and loss of interest are accompanied by loss of concentration and overall performance. Severe sadness or hopelessness in the depression lasts at least two weeks and affects everyday activities such as work, eating, sleeping. Depressed people tend to believe that they will be desperate and will not see help from anyone. They also blame themselves for feeling like this. They avoid joining social activities, they get away from family and friends. Sometimes even thinks of death or suicide (Celer, Kara ?, 2014).

Although the concepts of compassion, understanding and sensitivity actually have been in the Far East philosophy for centuries, their place in the field of psychology is quite new. In fact, we feel that feelings such as compassion, understanding, and sensitivity are often shown to other people. However, we know that the research shows that the person’s sensitivity and understanding to him is at least as important to others. According to Far Eastern philosophers, compassion and sensitivity are missing if we do not include ourselves. Self-compassion is a concept inspired by Buddhist philosophy and brought to psychology literature explained by Dr. Kristin Neff (Neff, 2003).

Historical Background to the Study

Burnout

The combustion concept started as a grassroots description of long-term professional stress among human workers, where formerly engaged employees gradually gain emotionally exhaustion, energy loss, and job breaks. This description was two us researchers, Herbert, were introduced in the mid-1970s Freudenberger and Christina Maslach, who described each other independently phenomenon (Freudenberger, 1974; Maslach, 1976).Therefore, the combustion concept is developed from the field observations – not from theory. Since the 1970s, more than 5,500 studios and burning books have been published (Hallsten, Bellaagh, Gustavsson, 2002; Schaufeli, Enzmann 1998). In a comprehensive 1998 review, Schaufel and Enzmann concluded: “Burnout is not a new phenomenon – it has its own root in the past. However, due to the unique constellation of several factors it is was “discovered” at the beginning of the 1970s as a special type of prolonged professional stress that seemed to appear most prominent among people service experts “.

Depression

Depression affects a wide range of people from basic daily activities to work life. Disorders in the mental health of the person, especially depression, are among the most prevalent among the factors that reduce the incentive to work.Job satisfaction is defined as employees’ feelings about their work. This term was first put forward in 1920, but its significance was understood in the 1930s and 40 (Celer, Kara ?, 2014).Depression has been known since ancient times. Today, ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers have defined most of our knowledge about depression. They have come up with the term mania and melancholy for mood disorders, two of the oldest known diseases. Depression is defined in melancholy. The definition has evolved up to modern ages. However, most of modern ideas about depression have developed with the work of French and German schools in the mid and late 19th century. From the old times until the beginning of the twentieth century, understanding of depression has shifted from supernatural explanations to naturalistic explanations. With the technological developments in the twentieth century, contemporary models of depression have formed (Yetkin, , 2007).

Self- Compassion

In essence, self- compassion is a concept that tells the individual to be compassionate, supportive, and understanding towards him. Self-compassion is to be open and sensitive to one’s own sufferings, to be kind and compassionate towards oneself, to be forgiving in the face of mistakes, to do not judge against failures and shortcomings, and to view the suffering situations experienced by all people as experiences and to accept them as if they are not judged (Neff, 2003). Actually, there are not many researches about self- compassion and burnout relation, by this point; we may say it is a new area to get studies for it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHEAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

Burnout

Burnout is a psychological syndrome that appears to be a long-term response to chronic interpersonal stressors at work. The three key dimensions of this answer are overwhelming exhaustion, feelings of cynicism and disengagement, and a sense of inefficiency and lack of success. The significance of this three-dimensional model is to clearly place the individual experience of stress within a social context and include a personal understanding of itself and itself. The first combustion research was investigative and primarily relied on qualitative techniques. Since they are the earliest researchers coming from social and clinical psychology, gravitating towards them relevant ideas from these areas. The social perspective is used for concepts that include interpersonal relationships, i.e. how people perceive and react to others; these include special problems, dehumanization in self-defense and award procedures.The clinical perspective they also dealt with motivation and emotions but framed them more in terms of psychological disorders, such as depression. Subsequent researchers came from industrial-organizational psychology, and this perspective emphasized working attitudes and behaviors. It is also a conceptualized combustion at this point as a form of stress at work but the main focus was on an organizational context and less on physical characteristics experienced stress. What came out of this descriptive work was three-dimensional combustion experience. Exhaustion dimensions are also described as wear, loss of energy, exhaustion, debilitation, and fatigue. The dimension of cynicism was originally called depersonalization (given the nature of man service) but is also described as negative or inadequate attitudes towards clients, irritability, loss of idealism, and withdrawal. The inefficiency dimension was originally and it was also reduced personal success described as reduced productivity or ability, low morale, and the inability to wear. (Christina Maslach, Michael Leiter, 2016)

Job Burnout

Burnout is a long-term response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors work and defines three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficiency. Past 25 years of research has determined the complexity of the construction and puts an individual the stress of experience within a larger organizational context of people’s relationship with their work. Recently, the burnout business has been expanded internationally and has led to a new concept model. Emphasis on engagement, a positive combustion antithesis, promises to bring a new one perspective on combustion mitigation interventions. Social focus of combustion, solid a research basis related to the syndrome and its specific workplace connection aa different and valuable contribution to the health and well-being of people. (Maslach, Schaufel, and Leiter, 2001).

Academician Burnout

Statistics indicate that teachers are increasingly abandoning this profession. According to Shinn (1982) and Katzell, Korman, and Levine (1971), teachers are three times more probable to stop working, and even more likely to want to quit the job than they are similarly trained professionals. There are many job positions in the private industry, others are looking for early retirement, others are easy releasing. Thousands of teachers have laid down their instructions and cherubs mainly, for this reason, reduced funding, limited personal control over their teaching and lack of social commitment. One important factor contributing to this trend is the teacher’s burden. Burnout is more serious a problem in the profession than job change or premature retirement because the teacher cannot wear it, though it stays in the classroom. According to Truchu (1980), the costs of admission to the classroom are at least 3.5 billion a year through absence, traffic, poor performance, and waste. It is estimated that One-quarter of all teachers feels burned at any time. Job burning is a problem in many professions, but it is significantly prevalent in helping interest. Teachers, as well as administrators, counselors, doctors, nurses, cops and so on, have an extra burden of extraordinary responsibility for the well-being of others on the top of the crowd stressors that arise from routine work. This heavy responsibility combined with limited resources, long hours, limiting working conditions and often unreasonable demands of those who receive services, lead to chronic stress, and ultimately burning (Dworkin, 1987).

Three Dimensions of Burnout

Exhaustion is the central quality of combustion and the most obvious manifestation this complex syndrome. When people describe themselves or others as experiences, Combustion is most commonly related to the experience of exhaustion. Of the three aspects of combustion, exhaustion is most commonly reported thoroughly analyzed. Strong identification of exhaustion with combustion led some to claim that the other two aspects of the syndrome are random or unnecessary (Shirom, 1989). However, the fact that exhaustion is necessary the combustion criterion does not mean that it is enough. If someone looks at burning out of context, and simply focus on the individual exhaustion component, one completely lose sight of the phenomenon.

Although exhaustion reflects the dimension of combustion stress, it fails to catch critical aspects of people’s relationship with their work. Exhaustion is not something that is simply perceived – rather than causing the action to depart emotionally and cognitively of their work, probably as a way deal with overloading the job. Within human services, emotional demands Labor can exhaust the ability of service providers to engage in, and corresponding to, the needs of the recipient of the service. Depersonalization is an attempt put the distance between yourself and the recipient of the service by actively ignoring qualities that make them unique and appealing to people. Their demands are higher manageable when considered to be non-personal objects of their work. Beyond human services, people use cognitive distances by developing indifference or a cynical stance when they are exhausted and discouraged. The distance is such an immediate reaction to exhaustion that a strong relationship from exhaustion to cynicism (Depersonalization) was consistently found in burnout research, through a wide range of organizational and professional settings.

Inefficiency ratio (reduced personal achievement) to another two aspects of combustion are somewhat more complex. In some cases it appears to some extent has function or exhaustion, cynicism or combination of two (Byrne, 1994, Lee , 1996). The working situation with chronic, demands that contribute to exhaustion or cynicism prevail one is a sense of efficiency. Further, hindering exhaustion or depersonalization with efficiency: It is difficult to get a feeling of accomplishment when it feels exhausted or when it helps people who are indifferent to it. However, in other contexts of work, it seems that inefficiency is parallel to the other two not consecutive (Leiter, 1993). There is a lack of effectiveness clearly derive from the lack of appropriate resources while exhaustion and cynicism emerge from the presence of overwork and social conflict.

Causes of Job Burnout

Factors affecting combustion have been shown in many studies over the years (Ghorpade et al., 2007). Though the negative effects of combustion are at the center of attention numerous studies over the past 30 years, the question remains why some workers in the floral organization and others show a sense of exhaustion and anxiety, and less sense personal achievements. Organizational researchers have suggested the causes of the job combustion can be found in individual and business environments (Beehr, 1998; Savicki& Cooley, 1983). In the second study, Panis and Aronson (cited by Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001) stated that combustion is caused by the syndrome of emotional and physical fatigue. On the other hand, combustion the result is an increase in negative business trends and a reduction in the interest of colleagues. Several factors are effective in creating work-related combustion that includes environmental factors, individual factors, and organizational factors. Organizational factors that can lead to combustion of work are a style of management, inflexible job rules, lack of job security and several opportunities for promotion (World Health Organization, 1998). In addition, Maslach and Leiter (2005) identify two groups of people who dominate the person before combustion. The first group called situational predictors involving the six predecessors: (1) (2) control, (3) allocation, (4) social networking, (5) fairness of work and (6) values. Other the group includes individual predecessors such as age, gender, marital status, and experience. Cordes et al. (1997) categorize combustion-related factors into three groups: (1) job and role characteristics, (2) organizational characteristics and (3) personal traits. In job burnout in public education: symptoms, causes, and skills of survival (1982), Anthony Cedoline offers the following analysis of the seven causes of burning jobs that they received the greatest attention in research:

Lack of professional feedback and communication

Like other workers, educators want to know organizational expectations, behaviors that will be successful or unsuccessful in meeting the demands of the job, any physical and psychological dangers that there can also be security work. Education employees need to develop feedback the value of work, aspirations, goals, and achievements. Lack of clear, consistent information can cause trouble. If the assessment is done only once or twice a year without regular, occasional feedback, the possibility of stress increases for a long time the employee works in a vacuum. As for communication, organizational structures that to encourage an open, sincere, cathartic expression in a positive and constructive way reap great dividends from employees. When management responds to the opening of communication to an only crisis, it reinforces negative communication.

Work Overload or Under-load

Investigators have found a high level of stress amongst them individuals who have the excessive workload. Long or unpredictable time, to responsibilities, work at a speedy pace, too many phone calls, deal directly hard people without enough relief, dealing with constant crises and supervision too many people (e.g. large class sizes and overcrowding) or have a wide variety job descriptions are the overloading features of work. Besides, boring jobs or unmanageable jobs are equally disturbing.

Contact Overload

Contact overload causes the need for frequent meetings with other people to do business. Some professions (learning, counseling, law enforcement) require many encounters that are uncomfortable and therefore disturbing. These workers spend a large part of their working hours in interaction with people in different states of affliction. When the number of objects is high, check to their own work and consequently the job satisfaction. Contact overloads also leave little opportunity or energy to communicate and support other employees or to seek personal and professional opportunities for growth.

Role Conflict/Ambiguity

 Although the conflict of role and ambiguity can arise independently, both relate to uncertainty about what is expected of them at work. The role the conflict can be defined as the simultaneous occurrence of two or more opponent’s pressure so that the response to something else does not match the other. The most common conflicts of the role are (1) those between the value of an individual and those of his or her superior organization; (2) conflict between job vacancies and workers personal life; and (3) a clash between worker abilities and organizational expectations. In numerous studies, the conflict of interest is associated with a low workplace satisfaction, frustration, reduction of trust and respect, low trust in an organization, moral problems, and high levels of stress. There could be ambiguity in the role defined as lack of clarity of work, that is, a mismatch between information available to the employee and what is needed to successfully perform the job. In compared to the role of conflict, the double role has the highest correlation with the job dissatisfaction. The uncertainty of roles is particularly common among school administrators. Individual factors: personal factors such as financial stability, marital satisfaction as factors of the personality of such neuroticism, excessive shyness, inflexibility and bad stress all management skills contribute to how stress affects the work. Mutually it can certainly be the interaction and accumulation of personal and professional stressors contributes to the burning of jobs (Anthony, 1982).

Burnout Signals / Signs

Burnout has mostly been referred to a syndrome meaning a set of signs / symptoms / signals indicative of a particular state. There are several signals at individual, interpersonal and organizational level (Schaufeli&Enzman, 1998).

Signals at Individual Level

Researcher agree that many signals may indicate that a person is suffering from burnout but usually a person does not show all of them (Burisch, 2006). Schaufeli and Enzman (1998) report of five types of individual level signals: affective, cognitive, physical, behavioral and motivational.

1. Affective signals: Depressed mood / changing moods, Tearfulness, Emotional exhaustion, increased tension / anxiety

2. Cognitive signals: Helplessness / loss of meaning and hope , Feelings of powerlessness / feelings of being “trapped” , Sense of failure ,Poor self-esteem , Guilt ,Suicidal ideas ,Inability to concentrate / forgetfulness / difficulty with complex tasks

3. Physical signals: Headaches, Nausea, Dizziness, Muscle pain, Sleep disturbances, Ulcer / gastric intestinal disorders, chronic fatigue

4. Behavioral signals: Hyperactivity / impulsivity, Increased consumption of: caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, Abandonment of recreational Activities, Compulsive complaining / denial

5. Motivational signals: Loss of zeal / loss of idealism, Resignation, Disappointment, Boredom

 Signals at Interpersonal Level

Schaufeli and Enzman (1998) describe also a long list of signals at interpersonal level. They again categorize them into affective, cognitive, behavioral and motivational signals. Since physical signals can be observed only on individual level, they are left out.

1. Affective signals: Irritability, Being oversensitive, lessened emotional empathy with clients / service recipients / patients, increased anger

2.Cognitive signals: Cynical and dehumanizing perceptions of clients / service recipients / patients , Negativism / pessimism with respect to clients / service recipients / patients , Labeling recipients in derogatory ways

3. Behavioral signals: Violent outbursts, Propensity for violent and aggressive behavior, Aggressiveness toward clients / service recipients / patients, Interpersonal, marital and family conflicts, Social isolation and withdrawal, responding to clients / service recipients / patients in a mechanical manner

4. Motivational signals: Loss of interest, Indifference with respect to clients / service recipients / patients at the interpersonal level a burned-out employee may, on the one hand, exhibit violent behavior. On the other hand, in most cases social isolation and withdrawal will occur. Another thing is salient at interpersonal level. Clients / service recipients / patients are being treated “as objects”.

Signals at Organizational Level

“At organizational level, burnout is first and foremost characterized by reduced effectiveness, poor work performance and minimal productivity.” (Schaufell&Enzman, 1998). Other signals are:

1. Affective signals: Job dissatisfaction

2. Cognitive signals: Cynicism about work role, Distrust in management, peers and supervisors

3. Behavioral signals: Reduced effectiveness / poor work performance / declined productivity, Turnover, Increased sick leave / absenteeism, being over-dependent on supervisors, increased accidents

4. Motivational signals: Loss of work motivation, Resistance to go to work, Low morale (Maslach& Leiter, 2016)

DEPRESSION

From the definitions in the literature, there can be a common conviction about the meaning of job satisfaction roughly with examples. If a person spends a significant part of his life in his job and continues this for at least 20-25 years, satisfying his job in order to be happy in his life is essential in terms of biological, psychological and sociological existence (Celer, Kara &Baltac?, 2014).