Antigen Receptors) T-CELLS:
CAR T-cells are
those T cells in which we insert the gene for Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)
and these receptors are then displayed on CAR T cells surfaces.
Ø CHIMERIC T
Cells receptors are those recombinant Receptors that provide both antigen
binding and T-cells activating functions.
Ø CAR T-cells
A type of
treatment in which the gene for a specific
receptors called CAR are inserted into T cells in order to modify them
invitro is called Chimeric Antigen Receptors T therapy.
Ø CAR T-CELLS
Blood from the
vein in the patient’s arm is collected and flows through a tube to apheresis
removes the White blood cells from the blood including T cells .
The rest of
blood excluding T cells is sent back to the patient.
Now the gene
for special receptors called Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) is inserted into
T cells in vitro.
Millions of CAR
t cells are grown in the lab and given to patient by infusion.
These CAR t
cells can bind to antigen on cancer cells and kill them.
Ø ADVERSE EFFECTS
OF CAR T-CELLS THERAPY:
Syndrome (CRS): A serious side effect associated
with Chimeric antigen receptors T-cells therapy is CRS. CRS is the result of
T-cell activation. CRS may result in high fever, headache, low blood pressure.
therapy targeting antigen (found on B-cells surface) not only destroys
cancerous B cells but also normal B cells. Hence, B-cells absence results in
low production of antibodies.
is a group of metabolic complications that can occur due to breakdown of dying
cells (cancerous cells). TLS can threat life.
CARs don’t require the antigen processing
and presentation by HLA( Human leukocytes antigen) and are therefore
applicable to HLA-diverse patient population.
provide a wider range of functional properties than transduced T-cell
receptors (TCR), where strength
of signaling, which is
for the most
part determined by
the TCR’s attraction for antigen, is the principal
cause of T-cell fate.
This therapy utilizes body’s own immune
system to fight cancer.
Ø ADVANCEMENT IN
CAR T-CELLS THERAPY:
different CD19 CAR T-cell products got FDA approval.
(Kymirah) : The first CAR
T-cell product to be approves and is used to treat B-cell acute lymphoblastic
ciloleucel (Yescarta) : After the few months of
approval of Kymirah, another CAR T-cells product was approved that is
used to treat adult refactory diffuse
large B-cell lymphoma .
Ø FUTURE GOALS OF
CAR T THERAPY:
therapy has got preliminary approval for
treatment of children and young adults with a specific form of leukemia that has not been cures with