One to develop his own learning. Thanks to his

One of the most famous English mathematicians, William Oughtred, was born on March 5, 1572 in Eton, England. He was raised in an academic environment, as his father, Benjamin Oughtred, was a scholar who taught writing. Through his father’s connections he was able to attend Eton College, where he received his bachelor’s degree in 1596 and then moved on to King’s College, Cambridge to receive his masters of arts degree in 1600. His studies during this time mainly consisted of philosophy and theology, since the age of twelve he showed interest and skills in mathematics. As a college student, it is said that from his basic mathematical learnings he received from Eton, he would stay late up at night after being done with his required regular studies. He finished his first work titled Easy Method of Mathematical Dialing,by the time he graduated from Cambridge. At the age of 29, in 1603, William Oughtred was ordained as an Anglican priest. Although there is not much information on why he decided to take this path, it is known that during this time period this was a common option and well respected career for an educated man. One year later after his involvement with the church, he became appointed as vicar of Shalford in 1604. At this point of his life, William Oughtred had already designed and or improved several instruments and works that would not be published until later in his life. Six years later, in 1610, Oughtred was promoted and appointed as rector of Abbury in where he was paid an annual salary of 100 pounds. In the first years of holding this position, Oughtred tends to the parish and  marries Christgift Caryll, daughter of William and Doryty Caryll. There isn’t much information on Oughtred’s family life, however there are sources that claim he had twelve children. All that is actually been verified is that he had two sons, who also were interested in mathematics and became watchmakers. This position was very important for Oughtred, as even when he gained fame for his accomplishments as a mathematician, as he continued to keep his position as the rector of Albury until they day he died. Interestingly, William Oughtred was never actually formally educated in mathematics, yet he was able to develop his own learning. Thanks to his written works, he soon gained fame as mathematician. At this point of his life, after he was done with his church’s obligations, he would use the time for his personal study. Later, in the 1620’s, he also used his free time to instruct others as he began to privately tutor young men, who like him shared the love for mathematics. The students lived in his house while he taught them mathematics, and were soon to become famous mathematicians themselves. Among these students was Christopher Wren, who was the architect that would end up building St. Paul’s Cathedral. The most interesting part of his time tutoring was how kind he was and the joy he found in teaching as not only did he share his home but also refused to charge or receive any payment for his teaching, as he believed his salary as a clergyman was more than enough. Being able to share his knowledge to the young minds of the future was satisfactory for him, which says a lot about who he has. His love for mathematics can also be seen in his nightly routines, it wasn’t unusual to find him working on trying to solve a math problem in the middle of the night. Many night were like this in which he needed to find the solution before he could fall asleep, he even had to permanently fix an ink container and a candle next to his bed. In 1628. William Oughtred became the tutor of Lord William Howard, the son of Arundel. Being an aristocrat, Oughtred wanted something better to teach him, something appropriate for someone at the level of Lord William Howard. This is when Oughtred put together everything that was known about arithmetic and algebra during this time. The earl of Arundel was very pleased with the way that Oughtred taught his son, so he became Oughtred’s patron and encourage him to publish his work. Being a summary of all that was known about mathematics at the time, this was a short 88 page book first published in Latin in 1631, It had a very long title that was shorten down to Clavis Mathematicae which translates to The Key to Mathematics. Thanks to the publishing of this book, he became famous not only in England but also across the European population. In this book, Clavis Mathematicae, Oughtred includes many shorthand notations for  denoting powers and ratios, among others. Many of these symbols were turned down because they were too complex. Yet two of his symbols, the “X” for multiplication and the “::” for proportion, as seen today, became mathematical shorthand universally. One interesting thing about Oughtred’s book was that he used the pi (?) notation but he used it only to represent the circumference of a circle and not the ratio of circumference to diameter, as we know it today.  Oughtred’s biggest accomplishment came during the scientific renaissance that took place in Europe. During this time period in order to in order to make calculations of multiplication and division of large and small numbers, mathematicians used logarithms. The use and development of logarithms would allow for complex operations of products to be completed using addition and subtraction. As time passes, a device that could speed up calculations was seeked for. In 1620, a mathematician named Edmund Gunter created “Gunter’s Line,” which has a two foot ruler marked with a logarithmic scale for operations which would solve multiplication and division problems to several places. Oughtred is credited with designing the first slide rule after struggling with Gunter’s Line and it functions as it required the use of clippers. In his slide rule, Oughtred got rid of the calipers and had two parallel rules place parallel to each other, connected, and the numbers position relative to each other could be used to make the calculations. His slide would become the first prototype for the modern slide rule. After his, many more versions were developed such as his own circular slide and someone else’s cylindrical version. The slide rule soon began to be used in every field of science and technology. In the last years of his career, following his success of his published work, Clavis Mathematicae, Oughtred was inspired to keep writing and was able to publish six more books.In one of them he described other forms of the slide rule, such as a sundial and the circular one. He had created the circle slide version as a navigational instrument. This device brought him lots of controversy as one of his former students, Richard Delamain, claimed it was his invention which he described in his own book. This controversy lasted for the rest of his life, however at the end the creation of the device was granted to Oughtred.William Oughtred, a man who spend endless nights trying to solve problems, a man who shared his love for math for free, and a man who introduced many text words, symbols, and devices to improve and advance the mathematical community, died on June 30, 1660 at the age of 86. There isn’t much information on his death and all that is known is that those last years were filled with controversy, but at the end his name was cleared and he maintain his reputation of the great mathematician that he truly was.