Salt experiment and make batteries utilizing an electrolyte substance.

Salt Water Batteries were first invented in 1964 by Saslow Seymour of Saratoga Springs, New York. The battery was used a little for anti-submarine warfare. However, these early salt water batteries were large and crudely built. Salt water batteries were much larger than other batteries and were never released to the public. Alternatively, lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries were small, compact, and were already being used by American households.The main purpose of a battery is to hold electricity so people can use it later to power machines or other devices. Every battery has two electrodes, the cathode and the anode. The cathode and anode are usually metals. Connecting the two electrodes in the electrolyte which is usually a liquid or gel that contains electrically charged particles. The battery stores chemical energy that is converted to electrical energy when the battery is used.These types of batteries were not the first though. The earliest forms of a battery may have been created 2000 years ago by the Parthians near the current city of Baghdad. It consisted of a copper cylinder in which they put an iron rod and vinegar. This was put into a clay pot. Reproductions that were tested show that it could produce 1.1 to 2.0 volts of electricity, however, not all archaeologists and scientist believe that it was actually a battery. Some scientists believe that it was a device used for electroplating gold.Our current batteries have advanced much further than copper inside of a clay pot, however. Alessandro Volta, for whom the unit of the volt was named, was one of the first people to experiment and make batteries utilizing an electrolyte substance. In 1802, William Cruickshank designed the first mass produced battery. It consisted of copper and zinc plates placed vertically in a wooden box. The box was then filled with an electrolyte brine, or watered-down acids. This brine allows the battery to store electrons. It also allows the flow of electrons through the battery, to power the external device. Electricity was lost however, through the circuit and the inability of the battery to hold the electricity for a long period of time. The problem with the Cruickshank battery was that when the battery ran out of electrons, it would become useless.With innovations in the production and efficiency of batteries people began making batteries last longer. One way that they did this was by making the batteries rechargeable. In 1859, Gaston Planté invented a battery which could be recharged. It was based on Cruickshank’s design, but it replaced his special acid brine with a lead-acid one. This new electrolyte could receive new electrons after the old ones were either used or lost.The problem with some types of batteries is that they all use limited resources. Lithium is a very limited resource, and so are the nickel-cadmium compounds that are used in the standard household double and triple A batteries. Most of these nickel-cadmium batteries are not recycled. This can lead to the metal casing corroding in landfills and releasing the chemicals from the battery into the ground and the surrounding environment.In salt water batteries, the electrolyte solution is salt water. Salt is a naturally formed minerals that has a translucent, cube-like crystal structure. Ordinary table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine, sodium chloride. It is abbreviated NaCI. These two atoms are tightly bound together in the compound.People have been harvesting salt for centuries because it is a needed dietary substance. It also improved the taste of many foods and helps to preserve meat. These reasons made salt a valuable commodity for much of human history. The salts they used were Epsom salts and table salts.Salt comes in many different types of varieties and colors. Ordinary table salt may be boring and white, but other salts can have vibrant colors. Pink Himalayan Salt, which is collected in the Himalayan mountains, contains as many as eighty-four trace elements, along with the salt. Some of these are calcium, magnesium, and iron oxide. Hawaiian Red Salt, or Alea Salt, gets its bright red tinge from trace amounts of volcanic clay. Other salts like Cyprus Black Salt, Hawaiian Black Salt, and Brittany Grey Sea Salt, all get their color from trace minerals and elements such as carbon and iron. Persian Blue Salt is the rarest salt on Earth. It gets is deep blue color from two hundred million years of tectonic pressure underground. Many of these salts may have nutritional benefits.Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sea salt are probably the best salts for salt water batteries, because they are the most common. They are also the cheapest salts. Potassium Chloride salt is found in fruits like bananas, eggs, and some cheeses. Sea salt is another popular and common type of salt, which is a natural mixture of salts that is found in the oceans. These salts would be the most economical salts for salt water batteries.Salt water batteries do not have acids or use special resources. Most batteries only contain salt water, copper, and iron, and then a container to hold it. This makes it much easier to recycle than the nickel-cadmium batteries. There is also more copper and iron on earth than lithium. The salt water could also potentially be reused or put back into the ocean. However, this will only be possible if the salt water remains stable after use in the battery. Electricity might change the pH of the salt water solution, making it more corrosive and harmful to wildlife.pH is the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in water. The pH scale ranges from zero to fourteen, with zero having the highest concentration of hydrogen, and fourteen having the lowest. The pH of pure water is 7, neither acidic or base. A number higher than seven is considered basic, while a number lower than seven is considered to be acidic.There are many different ways to test the pH of water. One way is by using litmus paper strips. They are very cheap and useful; however, they have a very narrow pH range. Litmus paper expires soon after being opened. This makes it unreliable and potentially very inaccurate.There are also other ways to test pH levels of water. Reagent drops work by changing color. It changes color due to chemical reactions between the fluid and the acids in the water. The reagent drops fluid is made of ethylene glycol. This chemical will change to a different color depending on the pH of the water. Top find the pH a person needs to compare the color of the water to a specific, color coded, chart. Reagent drops cannot be kept at a temperature of above eighty-five degrees Fahrenheit, or at a temperature of under thirty-six degrees Fahrenheit, because it is very reactive. Doing this will result in an unreliable test. It the reagent drops are placed in too bright of light, it will then be useless as well. Reagent drops are a great tool for testing the pH of water.A third method is to use a digital meter. These meters are by far the most accurate and consistent type of test. It was invented by a German, Nobel Prize winning chemist, named Fritz Haber and his student Zygmunt Klemensiewicz. However, these meters need to be calibrated before each test. Calibrating the machine can be a very time consuming and tedious process to complete with certain machines. Most testing machines are easier to calibrate, but some can be tough. These electronic testers are almost always used in professional scientific work due to its superior accuracy.pH meters test the pH of water by testing the amount of charged hydrogen molecules. Acidic solutions have more positively charged hydrogen ions than basic solutions. The meters measure the voltage, or electrical potential, of the solution. They are made up of an electronic meter and two with probes, each with an electrode. Some meters have only one probe, that contains both electrodes.Salt water batteries may become the cleanest form of an electrolyte battery. However, there has not been much research or experimentation done of the effects of electricity on salt water. It could potentially change the pH and make it more acidic or more basic. Testing this will make it clear if it will change. If it changes too much, it can possibly harm life in the immediate vicinity of where it is released back into the ocean. It will also prove the true recyclability of the batteries. It is easier and cheaper to make salt water batteries than other types of batteries, such as Lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries, which use limited resources and chemicals, however, it will only be completely recyclable if the salt water is safe for the environment.