Scenario: You are a community nurse who has been seconded to identify the health needs of the local child/young person’s population and the current initiatives that are in place to support those needs. Your investigations have concluded that the main health needs are:1. Low Vaccination Rates2. Obesity3. Mental Health4. Smoking5. Sexual Health Choose ONE of the above needs for your essay. Health conditions play a very vital role in the child/young person’s life whether it be low vaccination rates, obesity, smoking or sexual health, all of these factors affect the health and well-being of the child either being mentally or physically, sometimes both. The health condition that I have chosen for this essay would be obesity, the reason for my choice is that there are health risks associated e.g. diabetes, heart disease, and asthma which are known as seriously dangerous for a child’s health, children who are obese would have a greater risk of getting a health problem later on in their life, if not sooner than their peers who have a healthy weight therefore, it is important that this matter should be addressed. There are many interpretations and definitions people associate with the word public health, the main way to describe this term is the means of helping people maintain their health and well-being by staying healthy and protecting them from anything in which may harm their health and make them ill. Public health can involve helping the wider people in society, different factors such as; age group, socio-economic group and ethnicity etc. Nursing and medicine are important in terms of nurturing, helping and looking after people when they become ill making sure all their needs are met in terms of what they need medically. There are three main sections within public health. Firstly, health protection is taking into consideration people’s health and it can be from biological or environmental hazards which are harmful such as food poisoning or radiation. Secondly, health improvement could be promoting a health issue e.g. on the obesity topic healthy nutritions can be promoted by putting up leaflets or colourful poster on healthy eating on the wall in the GP, therefore, as the leaflet is colourful it will attract the eye of the child and they would be interested to reading it and this will educate them on what healthy eating is. Finally, healthcare public health makes sure that everyone’s health services are very effective and accessible. Public health is a huge advocate to the needs of the patient by reducing the causes of any illness and helping improve patients health and well being, opposed to wellbeing, a disability is a physical or mental condition that creates boundaries and limitations for the individual’s movements, senses or activities. An individual on their own cannot directly control their health however, there are many factors which would influence the well-being of the children in a community; income status, dieting, housing and education. A healthy home needs to have sound structure, to be free of hazards, to provide adequate facilities for sleeping, personal hygiene, the preparation and storage of food, should be an environment for comfortable relaxation and peaceful to rest the mind, for privacy and quiet atmosphere in which people can spend the majority of their time. Housing is important for many reasons and if the house is in poor condition for example; a cold home – this is bad for your health and increases the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases as well as the worsening mental health. Cold homes are a significant contributor to the level of excess winter deaths. “Most of the world’s population growth over 20 years will occur in low and middle income cities; nearly 40 percent of urban growth today is in unhealthy slum housing” (WHO). In addition, to prevent getting any illnesses from houses such as; council houses they should put forward an inspection that is done regularly from a different inspection company which is not the council, very similar to when the schools get inspected but not by their own, they get expected by an external company.Income status is one of the most important factor that can influence a child/young person’s health, money in relation to fulfilling the basic necessities in life, for example; health/nutritious food, water etc. The income status influences health when a family for example, live in a urban household environment with damp and mould which could lead to them suffering from health risks like; throat irritation, coughing or wheezing, eye irritation, or, in some cases, skin irritation. In this case, if a child was to be brought up in an environment with mould, they would develop allergies that would have more severe outcomes such as; sneezing, a runny nose, red eyes and skin rash. Moulds can also cause asthma attacks in some cases. According to the document in ‘Health inequality in London (Public Health England, 2015) it indicates that in England, the cost of treating illness and disease arising from health inequalities has been estimated at £5.5 billion per year, therefore; there would be great troubles for people with a low socio-economic income or who are in a low social status to afford this, furthermore, this makes people suffer from diseases and are left with a poor health.Since a higher income status is linked to a better health, there are ways of improving this which would be reinforcing after school computer clubs for children with no access, extra help during lunchtime clubs, and after school if necessary so that children that come from a low socio-economic and urban household environment, whom are deprived of that advantage at home can still have the opportunity to do well in their exams and understand things better instead of having to do that in a unhygienic or unhealthy environment to work. While the numbers/percentage of children that are obese or overweight has slightly decreased for those starting school, one in ten children are still entering reception obese or overweight, this is an serious matter that needs to be educated and addressed to parents informing them on ways in which it will later on cause harm and long term diseases for their children, because, as statistics show there is an increase to one in five obese or overweight child at the start of secondary school. (Barbara Ellen, 2015). Furthermore, in particular what you can eat can greatly affect your health and well-being. Scientific research carried out have shown that choosing to live a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Dieting involves our relationships with family, friends, community and the environment in which we are in. The process of learning how to eat mindfully nourishing yourself engages every aspect of an individual, whether it be social, emotional, mental or spiritual, when any of these aspects are unbalanced in any way, eating behaviours can suffer. Behaviours such as diet, how much exercise we do can play a big part or role in influencing the health and well-being and the risks of any further diseases, therefore health behaviour is important, a healthy diet can prevent cancer, since up to 60 percent of cancer cases are shown to be diet-related. The deep understanding into what drives these choices and how they affect health are key challenges to society. Further on, in the community where there are schools there should reinforce a ‘breakfast club’ where children from low income families cannot afford breakfast, this is the most crucial meal of the day and helps a child to concentrate, by putting this idea forward the child will have energy to learn in school and will be eating a healthy nutritious food. Also, there should be extra curriculum classes in PSHE discussing nutritious foods, water, the necessities needed to keep you healthy, how to maintain a healthy lifestyle etc talking on the extreme negatives and the health risks that may be caused. The way these classes would be set up can be fun, creative and a stand-up physical exercise, this will make children more interested as the whole class can participate in and they would be interacting with their peers and also learning about nutritious foods, healthy diets and the causes of a non healthy diet. Additionally, by enabling free lunchtime or after school gym sessions to maintain the child/young person’s fitness, and giving the same opportunity to any parents as well, this will then help parents and children within the community to keep healthy and fit making the parents/guardians good role models for their children, also, decreasing the risk of obesity as the lack or no physical fitness and activities can lead to children becoming obese or overweight, this will later on result to serious medical difficulties such as, type 2 diabetes, heart problems, sleep apnea and asthma.Also, there is a lack of access to local shops in urban or low socioeconomic areas, where there is no affordable shops where parents or people can get the essential needs like food, water, fruits, vegetables etc. Instead, there are local takeaway shops which are affordable therefore, parents may result to feeding their children takeaway food on a daily basis which can causes long term diseases gradually. “Eating out is another major contributor to childhood obesity. Studies show that calorie content of out-of-home meals that children consumed was 55% higher than that of in-home meals.” (Dr Ananya Mandal, MD). Furthermore, the local council need to set-up shops/supermarkets that are affordable to the local community, if they own their land making it easier for parents to feed their children a healthy nutritious meal. Low income is a strong predictor of low educational performance, this feeds into a disadvantage in adulthood and transmits poverty across generations, without the right materialist equipment such as; books, the access to the internet at home for research, pens and revision textbooks, children would spend most of their time watching TV. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood as eating habits and routines become a ‘normal’ and a lifestyle. More screen time means less time for them to be participating in outdoor activities, this is a strain on fitness and wellbeing. Parents/guardians need to be given a message that the main reason that children/young people do not get out much is that in society the number of hours spent watching television is seen as a norm, which may then lead to over laziness and obesity, progressively obesity is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes such as; environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. “Reducing television viewing and computer use may have an important role in preventing obesity and in lowering BMI in young children, and these changes may be related more to changes in energy intake than to changes in physical activity.” (NHS choices, 2008)The leading/ registered nurse is defined by stating that it is the promotion of health, the prevention of illness, and the care of the ill, they have a variety of tasks to take care of on a day-to-day basis, like for example; nurses assess the casualties in order to further know the extent and how worse the injury is, the evaluation stage comes into place, this is when the nurse evaluates the early warning signs using the PEWS chart, according to the NMC code of conduct “complete all records at the time or as soon as possible after an event”, this will be very useful and it makes the decision on how to treat the patient. Nurses keep the records, administer medication, consult with other healthcare providers such as, doctors, clinical radiologists, surgeons and paramedics. On the other hand, when conducting the pews chart and you’re taking the child/young person’s blood pressure and notice a severely dangerous bruise on their arm, this is a safeguarding issue and should be notified to the head nurse on the ward and should be noted on the patients records. In conclusion, the main condition chosen my essay was obesity and the different factors that can influence childhood obesity e.g the income status (socio-economic group), education, health and well-being, and important of dieting and in this essay I have explained all factors. Also, many studies stating that the rise of obesity among children in the wider population is due to the calorie intake with a accumulation of adequate physical activity.