Significance of products. Producers and manufacturers will become more

Significance
of the Study

            This study was conducted with the
purpose of contributing factual information and certain solutions in the
society as regards issue in the use of cosmetic products. Thus, this study will
benefit several groups of people within the community.

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            First,
high school students who are users and non- users of facial cosmetic products
will benefit from this study. Students who are users will have self evaluations
about their use of these products and later on, increased level of acquired
knowledge about the products; its risky side effects and the like. For those
who are non- users, they will be given information about the pros and cons of
using these products and will give them self- awareness as well talking about
these products.

Second, producers, manufacturers and
distributors of these products, specifically, those whose target market are the
teenagers will be given more precautionary ways in producing and selling these
type of products. Producers and manufacturers will become more careful in
making the product’s content, giving the consumers’ a more amount of
satisfaction in using the product.

Lastly, this study will serve as a
wake- up call for health community leaders to impose more laws against the
production of these products.

 

Definition of
Terms

Cosmetic product- any
substance or mixture intended to be placed on the various external parts of the
body with the purpose of cleaning, perfuming, changing their appearance and
simply maintaining them in good condition (EU Cosmetics Regulation, 2009)

Hypothesis

There is no relationship
between the use of cosmetic products to the facial appearance of high school
students.

 

 

 

Scope
and Delimitations of the Study

            The study only focuses on the high school 
students who are using  cosmetic
products  and cleaning agents. The
research sample is composed of twenty (20) students each from Grade 7 to Grade
12 from ages 13-18 years old. The data gathering technique that will be
used  is interview and questionnaire to
determine the students’ commonly used product and their perspective and opinion
of using cosmetic products and cleaning agents based on their experiences in
using them.  The study limits its
coverage on the chosen 20 high school students each from Grade 7 to Grade 12 of
CMCS only. The study will be done only in CMCS high school department and its
time frame will start on the month of December and will end on the month of
February.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

 

Introduction

Chapter 2 contains the
literature that are related to this study. It is composed of four parts: (1)
What are Cosmetics, (2) Risk of Using Cosmetics, and (3) Cosmetics in the
Philippines.

Part One, What are Cosmetics, presents
different definitions of cosmetics by a certain individual or to a group of
people.

Part Two, Risk of Using Textbooks,
discusses why teens use cosmetics and the possible bad effect of using it.

Part Three, Cosmetics in the
Philippines, explains the use of cosmetics among Filipinos.

 

What are Cosmetics?

The Oxford English
Dictionary defines cosmetics as:

1. Affect appearance only; superficial;
spec., intended merely to improve appearances.

2. Having power to adorn, embellish or
beautify (esp. the complexion).

According to Government of Canada
(2011), cosmetics are any substances used by an individuals in order to change,
improve, or clean their skin, hair, complexion, teeth or nails. It also
includes beauty preparations (perfume, skin cream, nail polish, make-up) and
grooming aids (shampoo, shaving cream, deodorant, soap). Honor Society of
Nursing (2010) states that unlike drugs that plays a role in treating or
preventing diseases in the body, cosmetics do not affect or change the
structure and the function of the body. It depends on the claims and on the
ingredient of a certain product that it can be identify as a drug or a cosmetic
product. A grooming aid or a beauty product is usually a cosmetic product but
if it claims to change body functions or to prevent and treat illness it can be
legally identify as drug.

Cited in Cosmetics and Skin (2017) European Union: Defines cosmetics as
“any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various
external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and
external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral
cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them,
changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them
or keeping them in good condition” Medline Plus (2017) define cosmetics as
products that were apply to the body to make it more attractive, to change the
way it looks and to clean it which includes: makeups, perfumes, hair dyes, and
skin care creams.

Dunn (2013)
said that cosmetics are anything that y opt on an individual’s body such as:
shampoo and conditioner, deodorant, nail polish, make-up, sunscreen,
toothpaste, cologne, aftershave, etc. Personal care products that were used by
a boy or girl is referred to as cosmetic.

            Cited in
Cosmetic and Skin (2017) U.S. Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) “Products intended to cleanse or beautify are
generally regulated as cosmetics. Products intended to treat or prevent
disease, or affect the structure or function of the body, are drugs. Some
products are both cosmetics and drugs.”

            Cited
in Cosmetic and Skin United
States: Defines cosmetics as “(1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured,
sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human
body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness,
or altering the appearance, and (2) articles intended for use as a component of
any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap”

Risk of Using
Cosmetics

            Teenagers are using cosmetics products for
various reasons such as: in order to establish their identity, to fit in the
group they were in, and to experiment themselves stated in Cosmetic Design. Com
(2008). Moreover, it also states that teens wish to distinguish themselves from
others and their insecurity and their desire to be different which is caused by
the fear of rejection and exclusions pushes them to improve themselves by using
cosmetics products. 

Grant
(2009) states in his article cited some unknown ingredients that were used in
cosmetics products that most of us were not aware and these are: waste cooking
oil, oleoresin capsicum, chicken bone marrow, fish scale, cochineal dye, bull
semen, human foreskin, ambergris, urea, and human placenta. He also said that
cosmetics can be very risky and dangerous even though it improves one’s
appearance.

According to Cosmetic Design. Com (2008)
girls are the ones who usually experiment themselves because they desire to be
mature and imitate their idols. They try to appear and behave older than what
they really are. Heid (2016) said that unlike before cosmetics
that were used by teenagers nowadays can increase the risk of having cancer,
lower IQ, or contribute to other health illness. In his article he also states
that 100 teens decided to stop using the cosmetics products they were using and
prefer to use some alternatives that did not contain phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and
oxybenzone because
these chemicals is known for hormones disruption. Studies about these chemicals
were done and an idea that these chemicals can cause tumor growth and the proliferation of cancer cells. They also suspected
that these chemicals can harm the quality of sperm in men or can affect
childhood and fetal development.

Dunn
(2013) states that an average teenager uses 15 to 25 cosmetics and long term
diseases were mostly cause by the chemicals that an individual engage himself
or herself with every day and it includes cosmetics. She also stated that the
government do not have enough regulations on cosmetic products and the Bureau
of Food and Drug do not have laws to the things that we put on our body unlike
to the laws to the things that we put in our body.

Moreover, Dunn (2013) based on the survey
from 500 teen have a list of dangerous chemicals in the cosmetic products and
safe cosmetics do not contain such substances that were used by teens and some
these includes the following:

·        
Petrolateum
(Petroleum): makes lipsticks shine, creams smooth, and softens skin

·        
Treithanolamine: keeps lotions,
shaving cream, soaps, shampoos, and bath powders from clumping

·        
Triclosan: prevents
bacteria on your hands from growing in your cosmetics, like on bars of soaps or
deodorant

·        
Toluene: liquid part of
nail polish and hair dye that makes it stick to your hair and nails and look
glossy

·        
Talc: absorbs
moisture and prevents powders like eye shadow, blush, deodorant from clumping
in the containers

·        
Butylate
Hydroxytoluene: prevents colors from fading and changing too quickly

·        
Coal
Tar: dissolves dead skin cells and controls itching in shampoo and hair
dye

·        
Cocamide/Lauramide
DEA: causes foaming in shampoo and bath products

·        
Formaldehyde: disinfectant
and preservative in deodorant, nail polish, soap, shampoo, shaving cream

·        
Diazolidinyl
Urea: helps the disinfectants (like formaldehyde) work

According
to Dunn (2013) California was the first state to have laws that were related to
cosmetics. It is required in the state of California for a company to admit
that they used chemicals that can cause birth defect or cancer in a
product.  According to Food and Drug
Administration (2012) in the Philippines, manufacturing, selling or offering,
and importing products that were not approved by the FDA or if a product is
found to have toxic or harmful substances is a violation of the Republic Act
No. 9711 or the FDA Act of 2009 and Republic Act No. 7394 or the Consumer Act
of the Philippines.

The
Food and Drug Administration (2012) also states that products that contain
highly toxic mercury above the limit of 1 mg/kg is banned in the Philippines.
Cases like kidney damage, skin discoloration, and skin rashes were caused by
high toxic mercury in a product. The FDA only approves products that comply
with the safety and quality cosmetics standard and produced under Good
Manufacturing Practice.

Cosmetics in the Philippines

            According to Euromonitor International (2017) the Philippine’s
environment for beauty and personal care remained and even increase by 5%
despite the economic issues and the weakening of peso versus dollar. It also
states that new cosmetic products try to capture and to attract younger
consumers because they were the one that have a large population in a country.

            Inquirer (2015) also states that according to the study
of Kantar on 3000 Filipinos both from urban and rural areas on June 2014- June
2015 he found an increase of 11% in the purchase of personal care products
faster than the increase in purchasing household care products.

            Lopez (2016) in an article states that an increase of 22%
in the sales of men personal care products from March 2015- March 2016 is found
in a global research. Kantar World Panel (2015) said that Filipinos are
prioritizing beauty and hygiene products. It was also found that all social
classes in the Philippines contributed to the increase of purchase of personal
care products. There are now 720,000 more homes that purchase soaps and 611,000
home buying cosmetic products.

            According to the article of Lorenciana (2016) beauty
business seems to be booming because it has been a necessity. Euromonitor
International (2017) states that producers expect an increase in purchase of
personal care products and cosmetic products after five years due to some
factors just like social media which is very helpful in selling such products.

            Chan (2015) states that in the Philippines manufacturers
and advertiser usually tap the attention of the youth especially when it comes
to the personal care products. Filipino have an attitude wherein they try to
pamper themselves first and care too much about their looks more than anything
made them purchase a lot of cosmetic products. It also states that the market
is geared toward females because they are the one that is very conscious toward
their physical appearance.

           

 

 

 

Chapter
3

Methodology

 

 

Research
Locale

            The
study was conducted at Calvario Memorial Christian School, Inc., a private
Christian institution at Golgota St. Janiuay, Iloilo. Located at the forefront
of the school is Calvario Evangelical Church wherein the school holds some
activities such as its weekly Sanctuary Hour. The high school is situated along
the highway and right across the Saint Julian Parish Church.

The Sample/
The Participants

            The
study involved 20 high school students of each grade level from Grade 7 to
Grade 12 of Calvario Memorial Christian School, Inc. who were recognized as
cosmetic product users. 10 participants include the male users while the rest
of the 10 participants include the females.

Research
Instrument

            Survey sheets were prepared to be
answered by the participants. The questions prepared in these sheets were
categorized according to the type of data that can be gathered and will enable
the participants to answer about the product/s they often use, the common
reasons behind their usage of these cosmetic products, their perception about
its effectiveness in their facial appearance and questions involving their
family genetics.

Data
Collection Procedures

            Before the distribution of survey
sheets, casual conversations were conducted wherein the study was introduced to
the participants as well as their roles in the study. After the enough amount
of time given to the participants, the survey sheets are gathered.

Data Analysis
Procedures

            Data gathered in the survey sheets
were reviewed and analyzed on order to meet the purpose of the study. Data
gathered from the male and female participants with regards to the common
products they often use were sorted out to find out the most commonly used
among these products. The participants’ family genetics were analyzed to find
out if there’s a possibility that this factor could affect the participants’
facial appearance. Lastly, the reasons behind their usage of these products
were also studied; their perception about the use of these products and their
effectiveness in order to help the researchers know how one’s level of
knowledge about these products plays an important factor in relation to the use
of participants to these cosmetic products.