Task shape regardless temperature change this process is also

Task 3.1

Materials the spacecraft is made from and the properties

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The materials that needed for the
spacecraft need to have temperature stability, as getting in and out of the
sun’s direct heat which then causes the materials to expand or contract. In order
to maintain the size and shape regardless temperature change this process is
also known as the dimensional stability. It is vital that need materials that
are used in space shuttles are thermal protected system. The structure of the
spacecraft will need to survive the tough environmental changes this includes
the high intensity of the radiation and the vacuum of the space. The materials
that are used in spacecraft need to have high intensity of the strength and the
stiffness as weaker structure will damage in the force in space. Materials
weight three times more than the in space comparing to the weight on earth. It
is important that the materials keep the weigh constant so they don’t bend or
break under the vast forces.

Shape and design

There are four parts of the space
shuttle: an orbiter, two solid rocket booster (they are refillable) and one of
the external fuel tank (not reusable). The space craft is launches in the space
with the two solid rocket boosters and the external fuel tank. At the launch,
at this point they are three main engines are ablaze (fuelled by the external
fuel tank). In order to get overcome the earth gravitational pull.

The orbiter shape is
similar with the airplane. The parts are quite similar as well however the
spacecraft only has engine configuration. The double-delta wings that make it
possible to lift, by the help of these wings the spacecraft is able to make an
effective flight with the hypersonic speed as well creating good lift – to drag
ratio while landing. To control there is elevon available to control the motion
of area. The elevator and ailerons are shared as the elevens and are situated
on the edge of each wing. The orbiter vertical stabilizer has rudder which
controls it’s the nose left, nose right. There is split –rudder on the orbiter
works as a rudder and also as a speed brake. This bends the airflow, increases
drag and reductions the orbiter’s speed as it will move beside the runway upon
arrival. As the orbiter breaks into the earth’s atmosphere, the control surface
relates with the air molecules and their airflow and their airflow to control
the orbiter’s flight path. The orbiter has two types of engine that are used to
make the missions successful. The orbiter manoeuvring system also known as the
OMS. The other engine that are used is the reaction control system also known
as the RCS. When the space shuttle manoeuvers in to the orbit it uses the OMS.

This is suitable at that point as they are 2 rocket engines that are placed
separately outside of the orbiter, there are place one on each side of the
fuselage. This then gives the orbiter the push that it needs to get into move,
in order to meet at the space station or even the space shuttle. The orbital
manoeuvring system is used to break in and out of the earth atmosphere.  the other engine permits the commander to
achieve the motion of the roll, pitch and yaw while the orbiter is moving out
of orbit and to return to the earth’s atmosphere, also the RCS is used while
the OMS is managing the upper atmosphere.

The space craft needs to have
lighter spacecraft in order to have use less fuel to break through the
gravitational influence.

Fuel used

The fuel that is approved by the
NASA most significant technical accomplishments – liquid hydrogen. Hydrogen is
light weight and tremendously strong rocket propulsive. It has the lowest
molecular mass also it burns with the high concentrated (5,5000F). The mixture
with an oxidizer for example liquid oxygen, the liquid hydrogen yields the peak
detailed impulse, or the competence in the link to the mass of the dynamic
expended, of some of the space shuttle propellant.

The liquid oxygen and the fluid
hydrogen both turn in to fluid at a very low temperature. The liquid hydrogen
should be stored at -252 oC need to handle with great safety to avoid it from
the evaporating or boiling off. So the space shuttles fuel must be shielded
from any rays of heat such as the engine exhaust and air friction during the
travel over the sky.  As it breaks in the
space the heat from sun is engrossed by the hydrogen it then swells quickly so
it is vital to escaping the storage to burst. As the metals being exposed to
greater cold temperature the liquid hydrogen becomes more brittle, likewise the
hydrogen can escape through minor pores in the welded layers. In order to avoid
any difficulties, it need a higher knowledge in spacecraft and aircraft fuels.


The estimated cost by the NASA is
$1.7 billion. The average mission would cost $450 million to launch.

Methods of communication used and their limitation

The communication carrier
assembly also known as the CCA have many disadvantages. As the multiple cap
sizes need to be accessible to different astronauts, as they have different
head shapes and size. The cap needs to be inserted in a place where there is enough
space for the cap. The cap is needs to be inserted where it doesn’t get in the
way of the astronaut vision. It needs to be placed were it is comfortable for
the astronaut.  This is important as if
the microphones move around the communication service can be in fault.  The boom microphone can affect astronaut
daily route for example feeding and drinking mechanism during the long duration
spacewalk. The high temperature can affect the communication service as the sweat
may affect the machinery part of the CCA. Another method the way astronaut may
communicate is the audio system, they have launched and placed in the audio
system that is already inserted in the helmet. It is when the microphone and
the earphones are placed inside the space suit instead of the helmet, this new
product can solve many limitations that the CCA presents such as there is no
problem for the maintenance. As it is placed in the side suite the sound can be
disturbed that is created from inside of the suit like the vibration of the space

Hazards such as the extreme temperature, micro – meteorites,
radiation and other dangers 

A thermal protection system TPS
is inserted in order to prevent them from the aerodynamic heating, this is
produced from the surface area of a launching an entity into the compression
and surface friction of the atmospheric gas. The vehicle’s formation and the
entry in to the track in the mixture with the TPS, it is used to identify the
temperature spreading on the space craft.

Space shuttle that contains a TPS
system that is stated on the use of surface material with high intensity of the
temperature with the mixture of a fundamental thermal lining to prevent the
passing into the inside of the space craft.

The heat that is generated from
the aerodynamic heating development is then radiated hind into the universe by
the quality of the high external temperature. There are selective materials
that have the properties that are efficient in space such as the temperature
capability, duration, high melting point and weight   that limits the level of the functions. To
improve the quality of the space craft materials have been the main focus to
research as they boosted the capacity material like the grander thermal shock
opposition and minor thermal conductivity, improves the thermal protection
materials and to have a higher successful rate to fulfil the mission. The more
improved the TPS rate will show have minor harms that will happen to the

The effects of the space travel on humans

There is an increasing risk of
radiation in space for humans, as on earth we are secured by the planet shield
also known as the magnetic field that surrounds the earth which is why we are
protected from the dangerous rays coming from the sun and the space.

In the space the radiation is a
form of the atoms particles that are launched from the sun and the space.  As the speed of the space craft can affect
the DNA molecules which then cause cancer and other serious disease as the
molecules are splitting with in them.

Recently, the high level of
radiation has been identified collected by the space flight of the mars.

On average, on Earth we are visible to around
about 3 millisievert of radiation in a year. Where as in the average of six
months the astronaut is exposed to estimably 100 millisievert. So the
protection shield some absorbs some amount