The some producers and shippers adding sugar of elderberry

The history of Taylor Vintage  Port is a fortified wine that are general red and sweet wine that comes in a number if styles.Port wine is produced in a demarcated region in the Douro valley in northern Portugal,inland form the eponymous city that called if Porto. In 1703, Which led,among others,to a fall in the duty on Portuguese wines exported to England.In 1756, just one year after the catastrophic Lisbon earthquake port wines soon became a victim of their own success,with some producers and shippers adding sugar of elderberry in a bid to improve their often thin,over stretchered offerings. In 1820 produced such and exceptional vintage that subsequent vintages had to be fortified to even gold comparison, and by 1850 the practice of fortification had become near universal. While the British bought the wine from them, aged it in Porto, and handled the export business. But the arrangement changed in the late of 19th century, when an infestation of an American root insect called phylloxera devastated the Portuguese and European wine industry. In the Douro Valley, you will see lasting evidence of the phylloxera infestations in the “dead” terraces, overgrown with weeds and a smattering of olive trees. During the infestations, these particular terraces were treated with harsh chemicals that contaminated and harmful to the soil, rendering it no longer suitable for grapes.Portuguese simple gave and unable to produces grapes for over a decade, they sold their land to British companies to wait a solution can be found. Today, Portuguese and the Douro Valley see many British tourists. Though it’s largely undiscovered by the Americans, this region is a real hot spot among wine-loving Brits.      Company history of Taylor Taylor, Fladgate & Yeatman is one of the largest port wine houses. Founded in 1692 in Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal by Job Bearsley, becoming Taylor, Fladgate when Joseph Taylor, John Alexander Fladgate and Morgan Yeatman formed a partnership in 1838, it is also one of the oldest one .The house owns the brands of Fonseca, Fonseca-Guimaraens, Taylor, and Croft.The house ships almost all types of port including vintage, tawny, ruby,late-bottled vintage, and white. The house invented the style of late-bottled vintage port.Taylor Fladgate’s vintage ports are some of the most sought-after and expensive ports in the world.                     5.Production of Port WinePort is produced from the Brandy o make the wine stop the fermentation and leaving of the residual sugar in the wine, and to boost alcohol content. The fortification spirit is sometimes are referred to brandy but it bears little resemblance to commercial brandies. The wine is then stored and is aged, often in barrels stored in a Lodge (meaning grapes grown and processed in the demarcated Douro region.The grapes that used to make the port wine is usually harvested on end of September.While there are many newer methods to make Port wine, we will be discussing the classic method of making Port wine. This method are of the use of the lagars which are shallow open vats used to crush the grapes and intensify the extraction of color from the grape skins. The use of the lagars is an ancient method that is rarely used anywhere else in the world.Port wine is used the grapes that picked by hand.There are many unique grape varietals in the Douro, most are picked and fermented together in the lagar that made with the granite. The following are the step to produce the port wine: Crushing Grapes in a LagarThe wine grapes go into lagars where they are crushed. Lagars are wide, open-top wine fermenting tanks made from stone or neutral concrete. In the Douro, lagars are made from granite.The process of crushing the grapes is either by the mechanization or foot treading. This process takes up to almost 3 days and then the wine is transferred into fermentation tanks where they continue to ferment until the optimal sugar level is reached.Adding The Brandy To Make PortPort wine doesn’t go through a complete fermentation. Instead, the fermentation is stopped when the ideal’s sugar level is reached.The addition of spirits stops the fermentation by creating an environment where the wine yeasts can’t survive. Winemakers add the brandy evenly into the Port wine so the yeasts are stop fermentation .Most of the Port producers use about 30% brandy to reach the legal minimum of 17.5 ABV.      Aging of the Port WinesPort is stable after the brandy is added into the wine but it still needs time to develop. Legally, all Port wines must be aged for a minimum of two years before release.It’s illegal for a Port producer to sell more than 30% of their Vintage. This means that the Port wine producers are legally extended periods of time.Fortified wines are essentially wines  powered the flavour and alcohol content by the addition of a grape spirit and also known as fortifying the wines. Most of us the fortified wines that has history with tall ships carrying barrels of wine from country to another country, bringing  little of happiness to the poor sailors on board.It was generally assumed that the addition of brandy to southern European wines was a sailor’s trick, as the higher alcohol content allows the wines to have a longer shelf life and not spoil on board the ship. (The wine Gallery,2016)Before refrigeration wine bottles, and the skill to air mail products, winemakers had a critical problem. Wine casks were not as air-tight as wine bottles, so during long sea voyages, the wine will change to oxidize and become the vinegar. winemakers want to reduce the loss of product they added spirits to their wine than resulted in a higher alcohol content and less spoilage.Not everybody love the fortification of wine.Baron Forrester challanged against the fortification of wines in the Douro valley, Baron Forrester died after he start the campaign. As his claims about the quality of fortified wine, it seems that history has proven him wrong as port and other fortified wines will widely enjoyed centuries later. (Flowers, 2013)Unlike other alcoholic beverages, wine basically makes itself,before fermentation begins special strains of yeastare added. In the fermentation tank,the yeast feed on the sugar and carbon dioxide to break it down. If the sugar has been completely consumed by the yeast,the wine is dry. At this point the wine can spoil due to oxidation. If oxygen enter the wine it turns to vinegar due the alcohal being converted to aldehyde and acetid acid.In the 17th century,most wines were transported around the world in casks and would often become oxidised and spoilt in this way.However,it was discovered that the fortification of wine improved thier keeping quality in casks and stopped the formation of acetid acid.Born of the need protect wines on long sea voyages,fortified wines were created.At 16th and 17th,many of the wines from europe spoiled on thier long journeys across the oceans.To solve this problem wine maker took up the practice of adding measures of brandy to stabilize the wine.This is done either before or during the fermentation process depending on the type of wine beeing made.Once this wine reach thier destination, they were often preferred to the regular wine normally served, because of thier higher alcohal content, robust flavours and firm texture. As a result , a new wine was encouraged and was continued to be made long after the need for fortification was necessary.For the next several thousand years so wine would remain an important trade item and would be hauled to market in mule trains led by the driver, called a sommelier. In Europe religion would play an important role in the production and distribution of wine. Monks needed a source of income, and for those who were less inclined to fund their monastic lifestyle by praying the rich into heaven, planted vines and produced liquid cash flow.While wine was often seen as also having medicinal value in Europe, far to the east in China, wine was considered primarily medicinal. forms as Benedictine, Vermouth, Jaegermeister, Fernet, and so many more. In China it was only in the last few handful of years that wine went from medicine to beverage. The Best know example of wine are port and sherry.(Bottleknowledge,2012)However, the twenty-first century saw a revival particularly among millennials of these exciting and really rather special wine styles, which has boosted sales, and generally made the higher quality fortified wines more accessible than they have been for a long time. As transport by ship became less common, and the harbours of England and other such countries became less busy, fortified wines fell from fashion somewhat.(The wine Gallery 2016)6.The fortified wine port best be served should have the right kind of port glasses.in recent years there has been an explosion of different shaped wine glasses into the market, all professing their ability to deliver the most amazing of wine experiences through their individual shape and design. For this we should be grateful, as it allows us to say farewell to the dreaded Paris goblet, the Schooner or the thimble size glass that has been the bane of Port Wine  through the ages.Do not feel that you have to spend a fortune on your Port glasses, but do use a well proportioned, good quality glass to really enjoy the powerful aromas and flavor profiles that Port wine offers. You would not put a fine white Burgundy or expensive claret into a tiny glass, so why do this to a fine Port wine? Do not mute the wine, but flatter it by affording it the correct glass. Example of the port glasses for served to fortified wine port is highball glass The highball glass is tall with straight or slightly angled sides. Martini glass Also called a cocktail glass, the martini glass is used basically as a matter of style or preference. It has a long base so your hand doesn’t affect the temperature of the drink, and it has a wide brim to release aroma.Hurricane Glass is Heavy on the bottom with curves toward the middle, the hurricane glass flares up top to show off a drink that’s often lavishly garnished.3.Port Wine is a sweet, red and it is a fortified wine from the Portugal. Port Wine is most enjoyed as a dessert wine because it is rich and sweet. There are several styles of Port, they are red, white, rosé and an aged style called Tawny Port. Port wine is its also has the diffrent style, each with its own characteristic flavours, from the intense berry fruit flavours of a reserve or a Late bottle vintage to the rich mellowness of an Aged Tawny  or the sublime complexity of vintage port. More than any other wine, Port offers endless opportunities for pairing with food .Port is arguably the greatest of all fortified wines and its paramount expression, Vintage Port, ranks alongside the finest produce of Bordeaux or Burgundy as one of the great iconic wines of the world(Taylor,2013) Port is also a sweet wine with flavors of raspberry, blackberry, caramel, cinnamon and chocolate sauce. There are some different kinds of port, but the 2 primary styles of Port include a red Port with more berry and chocolate flavors with less sweatness, and a tawny-colored Port with more caramel and nut flavors with more sweatness. The qualities of true Port Wine is blend by the Portuguese indigenous grapes. Grapes that are use to make port that are Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional, Tinta Roriz also know as Tempranillo, Tinta Barroca and Tinta Cão, and there are at least 52 varieties. Each grape adds a unique flavor to the blend. For example, Touriga Nacional adds blueberry and vanilla notes, while Touriga Franca adds raspberry and cinnamon notes. All varieties of Port have rich, intense, and very persistent aromas and flavour, with high alcohol content usually between 19% and 22% vol. They exist in a variety of sweetness and colours. In order to identify the several types of Port, some designations are used. (wine portugal 2010)  Port wine is also produced at the mountainous eastern reaches of the Douro Valley in northern Portugal, is one of the oldest and most beautiful vineyard areas where wine has been made for at least two thousand years. Although the wine is produced inland in the vineyards of the upper Douro Valley, it takes its name from the coastal city of Oporto from which it is traditionally exported. Until the 20th century, the wine was carried down the vineyards from the river of Douro with special boats known as barcos rabelos. The wine was then unloaded into the ‘lodges’ of the Port houses which line the narrow lanes of Vila Nova de Gaia opposite the old city centre of Oporto, to be aged, blended, bottled and finally shipped.(Taylor,2013)                       Black GrapesTouriga NacionalPort houses owned the quintals and seldom can found in significant proportions  , the Touriga Nacional is  the most famous of  red varieties. Its small thick skinned berries can produces low yields and produce dark, concentrated wines with enormous reserves of fruit and massive tannins. They give the depth, volume and stamina to the wines.(Taylor,2013)Touriga Francesa The most widely planted variety in the Douro Valley, the Touriga Francesa is a consistent and reliable producer of top quality port.Touriga Francesa is lighter and more perfumed than Touriga Francesa  was the reliable producer of top quality port yield intense fruity wines same to  the Touriga Nacional but more subtle in character and more aromatic. They have afirm tannic backbone and help give away the wine its structure.(Taylor,2013) Tinta RorizThe Tinta Roriz was the largest proportion of new plantings after the Touriga Francesa.it also called tempranillo.the flavour if tempranillo is essentially savourt rather than sweet. Its large berries and big bunches produce relatively high yields and the variety gives its best results in dry years.Tempranillo skins are not especially thick,So the wine is not marked by particularly deep colour,and rot can be a problem,especially in the tight bunches of the newer clons.(Taylor,2013)Tinta CãoTinta Cão is a red Portuguese wine grape variety that grown primarily in the Douro region since the sixteenth century. The wine can make very low yields which has led it close to extinction despite the high quality of wine that can produce. At the bilateral cordon training and experiments at University of California David have helped to sustain the variety. The wine has cooler climates and can add finesse and complexity to a wine blend.(Taylor,2013)White GrapesChasselasChasselas or Chasselas blanc is a wine grape variety that  grown in Switzerland,Germany and Portugal. Chasselas is mostly vinified to be a full, dry and fruity white wine. It  also suitable as a table grape that  grown widely for this purpose in Turkey and Hungary.(wiki) Fernão PiresFernão Pires is a kind of white Portuguese wine grape grown throughout Portugal but most notable in the Tejo (just north-east of Lisbon) and Bairrada (about 50miles south of Porto) it is also known as “Maria Gomes”. This variety is known to be a produce wines with a spicy aromatic character, though often with delicate exotic fruity notes. Generally  unexpected to a long-living wine, this wine is called to be the best drunk in its infancy or matured for up to 2 or 3 years. Outside of Portugal there have some significant planting in South Africa.(wiki)VerdelhoVerdelho is a white wine grape grown throughout Portugal, though most associated with the island of Madeira, and also gives its name to one of the four main types of Madeira wine. At the turn of 20th century it is the most widely field plant white grape in Madeira.(wiki)ViosinhoViosinho is a white Portuguese wine grape variety that is grown primarily in northern Portugal where it attains high acidity levels. It is primarily found in the Trás-os-Montes and Douro DOCs. It is used primarily as a blending grape where it adds structures and flavor to both still and fortified Port wines.(wiki)